For English Learners and other struggling students, understanding and using academic language is absolutely critical to literacy development and school achievement, but it takes careful planning to help these students develop mastery. Ruth Swinney and Patricia Velasco's teacher-friendly guide explains how to weave together content and language goals when planning lesson units, as well as offering strategies for moving students from social to academic language and creating a curriculum of talk in the classroom. In addition, Swinney and Velasco provide detailed sample unit plans in all content areas to demonstrate how these strategies can be employed while simultaneously meeting curriculum demands. Using specific structures of balanced literacy including read along, shared reading, and shared writing, these unit plans also include a self-assessment guide for teachers to use as they scaffold the content to increase comprehension and student achievement
Ruth Swinney is a native of Colombia, S.A. She started her career as a bilingual teacher in New York City. In 1984 she founded one of the first dual language programs in New York City in PS 84, and subsequently became director of bilingual and dual language programs for a large District in NYC. In this role she supervised bilingual and ESL programs, and developed seven model dual language programs for the District. When she became principal PS 165 (Manhattan) she set up a nationally recognized dual language program at the same time that she turned around one of the bottom schools in the city. She has won numerous awards for her work with second language learners, and for her achievements as a principal. After retiring she worked with the Reading and Writing Project at Teachers College, Columbia University, heading the principal work, and the ELL department. Currently she works as a consultant. Patricia Velasco started her career as a speech pathologist in Mexico City. After finishing her EdD in the United States, she established a Staff Development Institute (Casa de la Ciencia) that works with indigenous bilingual children and their teachers in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico . After she moved to New York City, she first worked for the Reading and Writing Project at Teachers College, Columbia University, as a staff developer supporting teachers all across New York City in addressing the literacy and language needs of English language learners. In addition, she was part of the faculty at Teachers College, Columbia University. Currently she is Assistant Professor of Education at Queens College, City University of New York, where she coordinates the Bilingual Program.
List of Illustrations Foreword: Finding Cats and Dogs in the Zoo, by Ofelia Garcia Acknowledgments About the Authors Part I: The Language Component: From Social to Academic Language Introduction: Making Content Accessible to English Learners and Struggling Students 1. Building Language: How and Why Background Knowledge and Its Relationship With Vocabulary The Role that Background Knowledge Plays in Our Learning Morphology and Syntax Figurative Language Conclusion Questions for Reflection 2. From Social to Academic Language: a Curriculum of Talk Developing Oral Language The Social and Academic Language Continuum What Is a Curriculum of Talk? Goals of a Curriculum of Talk: The Role of Conversation Different Types of Classroom Conversations That Support Listening and Speaking in the Classroom Conclusion Questions for Reflection 3. Structures of Balanced Literacy That Support English Language Learners and Struggling Students What Is Balanced Literacy? Literacy Practices That Support Language Growth Adapting Balanced Literacy Components Interactive Real Aloud Shared Reading Shared Writing Conclusion Questions for Reflection Part II: The Lesson Component: Sample Units to Integrate Content and Language Goals 4. Language Arts Unit: Memoir (Grades 3-6) Introduction Section 1: The English Language Learner and Memoir Breaking the Plan Into Doable Parts Immersion in the Genre Through Read Aloud Developing Knowledge About the Genre After Reading Many Memoirs Section 2: Addressing Language Needs Elements of Cohesion Figurative Language Conclusion Teacher Self-Assessment for the Unit 5. Social Studies Unit: Colonial Times and the American Revolution (Grade 4) The English Language Learner and the Social Studies Curriculum Concepts and Teaching Tools Breaking the Plan Into Doable Parts Anchoring the Unit in a Read Aloud Thinking Skills Used Throughout the Unit: Language Prompts Vocabulary Development Shared Reading: Working With Language Goals Shared Writing Conclusion Teacher Self-Assessment for the Unit 6. Science Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations (Grades 5-6) The English Language Learner and Science Planning the Unit Breaking the Plan Into Doable Parts Shared Reading Developing Critical Thinking Skills Through Read Aloud Experiment: Plant Adaptations Individual Book Reports Conclusion Teacher Self-Assessment for the Unit 7. Thematic Unit: The Rainforest (Grades 2-3) The English Language Learner and Thematic Units Planning the Unit Breaking the Plan Into Doable Parts Social Studies and Math Concepts Science Language Arts The Rainforest of the Amazon: The Play Conclusion Teacher Self-Assessment for the Unit Conclusion References Index