Whether occurring accidentally or through acts of terrorism, catastrophic chemical releases must be identified early in order to mitigate their consequences. Continuous sensor monitoring can detect catastrophic chemical releases early enough to curb extreme amounts of damage. In several notable instances, such monitors have not been used appropriately, or have fallen short of what they should have been capable of delivering. This book provides the technical background and guidance needed to get the most from this emerging technique and details the essentials of preparing any workplace from falling victim to a gas-leak catastrophe.
Since 1985, the Center For Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) has been the world leader in developing and disseminating information on process safety management and technology. CCPS, an industry technology alliance of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), has published over eighty books in its process safety guidelines and process safety concepts series.
1. Introduction. 1.1 Purpose. 1.2 Scope. 1.3 Who Will Benefit from this Guideline? 2. Management. 2.1 Management Overview. 2.2 Why Do We Use Gas Detectors? 2.3 What Do We Want to Detect? 2.4 What Actions Do We Expect to Undertake in the Event of a Release? 2.5 How Much Should We Spend on Detection? 3. Determining Where Gas Detection May or May Not be Beneficial. 3.1 Assessing Where Gas Detection may be Beneficial. 3.2 Situations Where Other Technologies May be More Beneficial. 3.3 Situations Where Gas Detection Is Recommended by Consensus. or Mandated By Law. 3.4 Situations Where Toxic Gas Detection May be Beneficial. 3.5 Situations Where Combustible Detection May be Beneficial. 3.6 Example Applications of the Continuous Monitoring System. 3.7 References. 3.8 Glossary. 4. Sensor Technology. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Description of Gases and Vapors. 4.3 Available Sensors and How they Work. 4.4 Factors to Consider when Choosing a Sensor. 4.5 Sensor Performance Variables. 4.6 References. 4.7 Glossary. 5. Approaches to Detector Placement and Configuration. 5.1 General Guidance for Detector Placement and Configuration. 5.2 General Guidance for Toxic Gas Detection. 5.3 General Guidance for Flammable Detection. 5.4 Detector Placement for Source Monitoring. 5.5 Detector Placement for Volumetric Monitoring. 5.6 Detector Placement for Enclosure Monitoring. 5.7 Detector Placement for Path of Travel and Target Receptor Monitoring. 5.8 Detector Placement for Perimeter Monitoring. 5.9 Detector Set Points and Monitoring. 6. Overall System Management - Commissioning, Testing, and Maintenance. 6.1 Summary. 6.2 Training. 6.3 Documentation. 6.4 Maintenance. 6.5 Establish a Good Relationship with the Local Authority-Having Jurisdiction (AHJ. 6.6 Change Management.