How did the Ayatollah Khomeini create his Islamic state? What were the ideas which drove him and his movement? What organisation and methods helped bring him to power? This extraordinary book is the first to analyse the ideological roots of an Islamic state as conceived by the Ayatollah Khomeini. Surprisingly the author finds much of the inspiration behind Khomeini's political thinking being influenced by western sources - his writings on the supreme Islamic Jurist being affected by Plato's notions of the philosopher-king and his views of state power and centralism being closely linked to his understanding of Marxist/Leninist totalitarianism. Vanessa Martin makes a groundbreaking contribution on the dynamics of the Iranian Revolution and the Islamist revival especially relevant in the context of the debated arising out of Irans' recent elections.
Vanessa Martin is lecturer in Modern Middle Eastern History at Royal Holloway College, University of London. She is author of Islam and Modernism: The Iranian Revolution of 1906 (I.B.Tauris).
Acknowledgements vii Introduction ix I The Historical Background - Religion and State 1 The Qajar Era 1 The Period of Reza Shah 9 Muhammad Reza Shah 17 II Early Years and the Influence of 'Irfan 29 Youth and Development 29 'Irfan and its Background 31 The Role of 'Irfan 34 III Restructuring, Organization and the Emergence of the Nahzat 48 Restructuring in Qum in the 1940s and 1950s 48 The Quest for a New Marja' 56 Conflicts Between Clergy and State 60 The Association of United Societies 64 Organization and Khomeini's Students after his Exile 69 IV Mutahhari: Towards an Islamic Ideology and the Battle for Control of Political Islam 75 Mutahhari's Life and Background 76 Mutahhari's Philosophy of Islam 81 The Refutation of Marxism and Iltiqat 92 V Visions of the Islamic State I - The Khomeini Version 100 The Modernization of Islam - Some Earlier Views 100 Khomeini's Ideas on the Islamic State in The Revealing of Secrets 103 Khomeini's Concept of the Islamic State in the 1960s 112 Islamic Government and the Government of the Jurist 115 The Islamic State in Khomeini's Speeches and Leaflets, 1971-78 124 VI Visions of the Islamic State II - Other Islamist Movements 129 The Fada'iyan-i Islam 129 The Wider Islamist Debate and the Question of Influences 133 VII The Establishment of the Islamic State 147 The Political Situation, 1978-79 147 Khomeini's Movement During the Revolution 150 The Struggle over the Nature of the Islamic Republic 156 The Constitution of the Islamic Republic 159 The Bani Sadr Period and Beyond 166 VIII The Western Media and the Iranian Revolution 174 Phase I: The Months Leading up to the Revolution 178 Phase II: September - December 1978 178 Phase III: January - February 1979 181 Phase IV: March - November 1979 184 IX The Contemporary Muslim Perspective on the Iranian Revolution 188 Conclusion 197 Notes 205 Glossary 230 Bibliography 235 Index 244