"We Greeks are one in blood and one in language; we have temples to the gods and religious rites in common, and a common way of life." Herodotus
Throughout the course of ancient Greek civilization, there always existed a sense of shared culture among the many Greek communities scattered throughout the Mediterranean. During the Classical (479-338) and Hellenistic (338-30) periods, the countless individual poleis of the Archaic period gradually came together in leagues and alliances, and finally were more or less united when they fell under the Roman empire.
But what is fascinating about this process is how much resistance there was to it. The Greeks found it impossible to unify when faced with common enemies. Even under Roman rule the Greek cities still bickered. Acts of union - going back to the legendary Trojan War - were widely celebrated, but made little practical difference. If the Greeks knew that they were kin, why is Greek history so often the history of their internecine wars and other forms of competition with one another? This is the
question acclaimed historian Robin Waterfield sets out to explore in Creators, Conquerors, and Citizens.
This extraordinary contradiction - the recognition that they were all Greeks, but the deep-seated reluctance to unify - is at the heart of this ambitious new history. The culmination of a lifetime of research, Waterfield gives a comprehensive account of seven hundred years, from the emergence of the Greeks around 750 BCE to the downfall of the last of the Greco-Macedonian kingdoms in 30 BCE, looking at political, military, social, and cultural history.
Robin Waterfield is an independent scholar, living in southern Greece. In addition to more than twenty-five translations of works of Greek literature, he is the author of numerous books, most recently Taken at the Flood: The Roman Conquest of Greece (OUP, 2014).
Preface and Acknowledgements List of Illustrations List of Maps Chronology and King Lists Introduction I: Historical Background Introduction II: Environmental Background ACT I: The Archaic Period (c. 750-480): The Formation of States 1: The Emergence of the Greeks in the Mediterranean 2: Aristocracy and the Archaic State 3: The Archaic Greek World 4: Athens in the Seventh and Sixth Centuries 5: The Athenian Democratic Revolution 6: Sparta 7: Greek Religion 8: The Persian Wars 9: The Greeks at War ACT II: The Classical Period (479-323): A Tale, Mainly, of Two Cities 10: The Delian League 11: The Economy of Greece 12: Periclean Athens 13: Women, Sexuality, and Family Life 14: The Peloponnesian War 15: Socrates and the Thirty Tyrants 16: The Futility of War 17: Athens and Macedon 18: Alexander the Great 19: The Instability of Syracuse ACT III: The Hellenistic Period (323-30): Greeks, Macedonians, and Romans 20: The Successor Kingdoms 21: Greeks and Macedonians in the Third Century 22: The Greek Cities in the New World 23: Life and Culture in the Hellenistic World 24: The Roman Conquest 25: A Feat of Imagination Glossary Recommended Reading Index