Dendrimer Chemistry: Concepts, Syntheses, Properties, Applications

Dendrimer Chemistry: Concepts, Syntheses, Properties, Applications

By: Nicole Werner (author), Gabriele Richardt (author), F. Vogtle (author), Anthony J. Rackstraw (translator)Paperback

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Description

Written by internationally acclaimed authors, this textbook contains everything you need to know about this versatile class of compounds. Starting with a historical overview, definitions and other fundamentals, it goes on to look at characterization, analysis and properties of dendrimers. While the focus is on synthesis and applications, it also contains chapters on analytics and other applications. Essential reading for organic and polymer chemists, undergraduate and graduate students, students and lecturers in chemistry.

About Author

Born in Ehingen, Germany, in 1939, Fritz Vogtle studied chemistry in Freiburg as well as chemistry and medicine in Heidelberg, where he received his PhD under Professor Hein A. Staab in 1965 on the valence isomerization of double Schiff bases. After gaining his lecturing qualification he was a professor in Wurzburg from 1969 to 1975, before accepting a position as full professor and director of the Kekule-Institut for Organische Chemie und Biochemie in Bonn. He was awarded a literature prize by the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie, the LIse Meitner-Alexander von Humboldt Award, the Izatt-Bradshaw-Christensen Award for Macrocyclic Chemistry and the Adolf von Baeyer medal of the German Chemical Society, as well as an honorary doctorate from the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. He has authored or co-authored several books and numerous scientific papers. Professor Vogtle's research interests include supramolecular and nano chemistry, dendrimers, cyclophanes, low molecular weight gelators and intertwined molecular architectures. Gabriele Richardt studied chemistry at Bonn, where she was awarded her PhD under Professor H. Wamhoff in the field of nucleosides. In 2002 she began working in Professor Vogtle's group, before transferring to the polymer group headed by Professor S. Hoger in 2007. Nicole Werner studied chemistry and biology at Bonn, receiving her PhD in 2004 under Professor F. Vogtle for her work in the dendrimer field. She has been teaching chemistry and physics at German grammar schools since 2006.

Contents

Preface . 1 Introduction . 1.1 Historical - Cascade molecules and dendrimers . 1.2 Dendritic architectures . 1.3 Perfection, defects, dispersity . 1.4 Definition and classification of dendritic molecules . 1.5 Nomenclature of dendritic molecules . 1.5.1 Newkome nomenclature . 1.5.2 Cascadane nomenclature . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 1 "Introduction" . 2 Synthetic methods for dendritic molecules . 2.1 Divergent synthesis . 2.2 Convergent synthesis . 2.3 Recent synthetic methods . 2.3.1 Orthogonal synthesis . 2.3.2 Double-stage convergent method . 2.3.3 Double-exponential method . 2.3.4 Hypermonomer method . 2.3.5 Click chemistry . 2.4 Solid phase synthesis . 2.5 Coordination-chemical synthesis . 2.5.1 Metal complex as core unit . 2.5.2 Metal complexes as branching unit . 2.6 Supramolecular synthesis . 2.7 Hyperbranched polymers . 2.8 Dendronised linear polymers . 2.8.1 Polymer-analogous method . 2.8.2 Macromonomer method . 2.9 Dendro-Isomers . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 2. "Synthetic methods for dendritic molecules" . 3 Functional dendrimers . 3.1 Monofunctional dendrimers . 3.1.1 Functional core . 3.1.2 Functional periphery . 3.1.2.1 Functionalisation of terminal groups . 3.1.2.2 Introduction of peripheral groups prior to dendrimer growth . 3.1.3 Functional units in the dendrimer scaffold . 3.1.3.1 Modification prior to dendrimer growth . 3.1.3.2 Internal modification on conclusion of dendrimer growth . 3.2 Multifunctional dendrimers . 3.2.1 Bifunctionalised molecular periphery . 3.2.2 Two different functional units in different parts of the molecule . 3.2.3 More than two different functional units . 3.2.4 Overview of functional dendrimers and their synthesis . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 3 "Functional dendrimers" . 4 Types of dendrimers and their syntheses . 4.1 Achiral dendrimers . 4.1.1 POPAM . 4.1.2 PAMAM . 4.1.3 POMAM . 4.1.4 Polylysine dendrimers . 4.1.5 Dendritic hydrocarbons . 4.1.5.1 Condensed arene components - Iptyceness . 4.1.5.2 Dendrimers from arene and multiply bonded building blocks . 4.1.5.3 Stilbenoid dendrimers . 4.1.5.4 Hyperbranched polybenzenes . 4.1.6 Carbon/oxygen-based (and Frechet) dendrimers . 4.1.6.1 Polyether dendrimers . 4.1.6.2 Polyester dendrimers . 4.1.6.3 Carbohydrate dendrimers (glycodendrimers) . 4.1.7 Porphyrin-based dendrimers . 4.1.8 Ionic dendrimers . 4.1.8.1 Polyanionic dendrimers . 4.1.8.2 Polycationic dendrimers . 4.1.9 Silicon-based dendrimers . 4.1.9.1 Silane dendrimers . 4.1.9.2 Carbosilane dendrimers . 4.1.9.3 Carbosiloxane dendrimers . 4.1.9.4 Siloxane dendrimers . 4.1.9.5 Hyperbranched silicon-based polymers . 4.1.10 Phosphorus-based dendrimers . 4.1.11 Metallodendrimers (and Newkome dendrimers) . Bibliography and Notes for Section 4.1 "Achiral dendrimers" . 4.2 Chiral dendrimers . 4.2.1 Classification of chiral dendrimers . 4.2.2 Studies on the chirality of dendritic molecules . 4.2.2.1 Chiroptical studies . 4.2.2.2 Possible applications of chiral dendrimers . 4.2.3 Dendrimers with chiral core and achiral branching scaffold . 4.2.3.1 Chiroptical studies on dendrimers with chiral cores . 4.2.3.2 Possible applications of chiral-core dendrimers . 4.2.4 Dendrimers with chiral building blocks as spacers or branching units . 4.2.4.1 Chiroptical studies on dendrimers with chiral dendrimer scaffold . 4.2.4.2 Possible applications of dendrimers with chiral branching scaffold . 4.2.5 Chirality in the periphery . 4.2.5.1 Chiroptical studies on dendrimers with peripheral chiral units . 4.2.5.2 Possible applications of dendrimers with peripheral chiral units . 4.2.6 Chiral dendrimers for asymmetric catalysis . 4.2.7 Interpretation of the chirality of dendritic molecules . Bibliography and Notes for Section 4.2 "Chiral Dendrimers" . 5 Photophysical properties of dendritic molecules . 5.1 Luminescence and energy transfer . 5.1.1 Luminescence . 5.1.2 Energy transfer . 5.1.2.1 Dexter mechanism: Energy transfer by radiative emission . 5.1.2.2 Forster mechanism: Energy transfer by dipole-dipole interactions . 5.1.2.3 Examples from the field of dendritic molecules . 5.2 Antenna effect and photoisomerisation of dendrimers . 5.2.1 Antenna effect . 5.2.2 Photoisomerisation . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 5. "Photophysical properties of dendritic molecules" . 6 (Special) chemical reactions of dendritic molecules . 6.1 Covalent chemical reactions . 6.1.1 Metathesis . 6.1.2 Molecular imprinting . 6.1.3 Covalent introduction of functionalities in the interior of dendritic molecules . 6.2 Supramolecular (host/guest) interactions . 6.2.1 Non-covalent modification of a dendrimer periphery . 6.2.2 Self-assembly of dendrimers . 6.2.3 Inclusion of guest species in dendritic host molecules . 6.2.3.1 Dendrimers with multiple receptor units . 6.2.3.2 Guest inclusion by steric compression . 6.2.3.3 Guest inclusion by dynamic processes (diffusion) . 6.2.4 Self-assembly of dendrimers . 6.2.5 Dendritic stopper groups (in rotaxanes) . 6.3 Dendritic effects . 6.3.1 Dendritic effect on inclusion of guests . 6.3.2 Dendritic effects in catalysis . 6.3.2.1 Metal-containing dendritic catalysts . 6.3.2.2 Metal-free dendritic catalysts . 6.3.3 Dendritic effects on electrochemical properties . 6.3.3.1 Metal-free dendritic catalysts . 6.3.3.2 Redox gradients . 6.3.3.3 Redox sensors . 6.3.3.4 Redox potential and redox transfer kinetics . 6.3.3.5 Charge-separation processes . 6.3.4 Summary of the dendritic effect . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 6. "(Special) chemical reactions of dendritic molecules" . 7 Characterisation and analysis . 7.1 Chromatography . 7.1.1 Liquid chromatography . 7.1.1.1 Preparative liquid chromatography . 7.1.1.2 High-performance liquid chromatography . 7.1.2 Gel permeation chromatography . 7.2 Gel electrophoresis . 7.3 NMR spectroscopy . 7.3.1 (1D)-NMR spectroscopic studies . 7.3.2 Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy in dendrimer research . 7.3.3 Diffusion NMR spectroscopy . 7.3.4 Dynamic NMR spectroscopy . 7.4 Mass spectrometry . 7.4.1 Gentle ionisation methods: MALDI and ESI . 7.4.1.1 Study of dendrimers by MALDI and ESI-MS . 7.5 X-ray crystal structure analysis . 7.6 Small-angle scattering . 7.6.1 Principle of small-angle scattering . 7.6.2 Capability of small-angle scattering . 7.6.3 Structural analysis of dissolved dendrimers with SANS and SAXS . 7.6.3.1 Radial segment density distribution of flexible dendrimers . 7.6.3.2 Distribution of end groups . 7.6.3.3 Intermolecular interactions of flexible dendrimers in solution . 7.7 Scanning probe microscopy . 7.7.1 STM and AFM . 7.7.1.1 AFM images of dendrimers . 7.7.1.2 STM images of dendrimers . 7.8 Transmission electron microscopy . 7.8.1 TEM . 7.8.1.1 TEM images of dendrimers . 7.9 Chiroptical methods . 7.9.1 Optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichroism . 7.9.2 Chiroptical studies on chiral dendritic structures . 7.10 Summary . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 7. "Characterization and analysis" . 8 Special properties and potential applications . 8.1 Introduction . 8.2 Catalysis, membrane technology . 8.2.1 Dendrimers as catalyst supports . 8.2.2 Catalytic dendrimers for membrane reactors . 8.2.3 Dendrimers in enantioselective catalysis . 8.2.4 Dendrimers as phase transfer catalysts . 8.3 Pigments, adhesives, additives in chemical materials . 8.3.1 Dendrimers as additives . 8.3.2 Dendritic polymers for printing inks . 8.3.3 Dendritic polymers for paints . 8.3.4 Dendritic polymers as additives in foam formulation . 8.3.5 Network precursors for plastics . 8.3.6 Dendrimers as nanocapsules for dyes and for molecular imprinting . 8.4 Dendrimers for displays and (opto)electronics . 8.4.1 Liquid-crystalline dendrimers . 8.5 Biomimetics, sensor technology, diagnostics (fluorescence) . 8.5.1 Protein dendrimers . 8.5.2 Glycomimetics . 8.5.3 Dendrimers in sensor technology . 8.5.3.1 Quartz micro balance with dendritic sensor layers . 8.5.3.2 Luminescent dendrimers as sensor materials . 8.5.3.3 Fluorescing PET sensors . 8.6 Dendrimers in medical diagnostics . 8.6.1 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) processes . 8.6.2 DNA dendrimers as biosensors for DNA hybridisation . 8.7 Medical applications . 8.7.1 Dendrimers as carriers for cytostatic agents . 8.7.2 Gene therapy . 8.7.3 Photodynamic therapy . 8.7.4 Dendrimers in prevention against HIV . 8.7.5 Culture of organs and tissue . 8.7.5.1 Wound healing . 8.7.6 Boron neutron capture therapy . 8.8 Dendrimers in nanotechnology . 8.8.1 Photoswitchable dendrimers . 8.8.2 Dendrimers as impellers . 8.8.3 Dendrimers as nanotubes . 8.8.4 Dendritic polymers as templates . Bibliography and Notes for Chapter 8. "Special properties and potential applications" . Outlook . Subject Index .

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527320660
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 354
  • ID: 9783527320660
  • weight: 694
  • ISBN10: 3527320660

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