The Mediterranean sea has been a key geopolitical territory in the global international relations of the twentieth century; of crucial importance to the US, the Middle East and in the history of the EU. As Cold War documents become declassified and these archives become accessible to western historians, this volume reassesses the secret war waged over three decades for control of the Mediterranean Sea. An 'American lake' in the 1950s, a battlefield for influence in the Cold War of the 1960s, and an increasingly important political arena for the oil-rich Gulf States in the 1970s, the Mediterranean offers a focal point around which the major themes and narratives of Cold War history were constructed. "Detente in Cold War Europe" draws together detailed analyses of the major moments of post-WWII history through the prism of the Mediterranean - including the signing of the Helsinki Accords in 1975, the Jordan crisis of 1970, the Soviet role in the Yom Kippur war, the Cyprus emergency of 1974, US-Soviet detente and US-Israeli relations under President Nixon.
This book is a vital work for historians of the twentieth century and for those seeking to understand the importance of the Mediterranean in the political history of the Cold War.
Antonio Varsori is Professor of the History of International Relations at the University of Padua, where he is Head of the Department of International Studies. He is Deputy-Chairman of the Liaison Committee of the Historians of Contemporary Europe at the European Commission and on the editorial board of several European journals. Elena Calandri is Associate Professor of the History of International Relations at the University of Padua. Daniele Caviglia is Associate Professor of the History of International Relations at the LUSPIO Institute in Rome.
Introduction 1; Elena Calandri, Daniele Caviglia, Antonio Varsori; Part 1 The Mediterranean(s) in the Global Balance 13; 1 Fault Lines in Post-War Mediterranean and the 'Birth of Southern Europe', 1945-1979: An Overview 15 Effie G.H. Pedaliu; 2 The United States, the EE C and the Mediterranean: Rivalry or Complementarity? 33 Elena Calandri; 3 R e-Discovering the Mediterranean: First Tests of Coordination among the Nine 49 Guia Migani; 4 Sea and Detente in Helsinki: The Mediterranean Stake of the CSCE, 1972-1975 61 Nicolas Badalassi; 5 Regional Detente or a New International Order? The Italian Communist Party, Non-Aligned Leaders and the Mediterranean, 1964-1980 75 Marco Galeazzi; 6 A Window of Opportunity? Eurocommunism(s) and Detente 89 Valentine Lomellini; Part 2 War and Diplomacy in the Middle East 103; 7 The American-Israeli 'Special Relationship' in the Nixon-Kissinger Years 105 Antonio Donno; 8 'The Gods of War were Inspecting their Armaments': The United States and the 1970 Jordan Crisis 117 Daniele De Luca; 9 The Middle Eastern Test of Detente: The USSR Direct Role in the Yom Kippur War, 1973 125 Isabella Ginor and Gideon Remez; 10 Conflict and Detente in the Eastern Mediterranean: From the Yom Kippur War to the Cyprus Crisis, October 1973-August 1974 141 John Sakkas; 11 The Post-Cold War Legacies of US Realism: The 1974 Cyprus Crisis in Perspective 155 Jan Asmussen; 12 The Fact-finding Missions of the Socialist International in the Middle East, 1974-1976 171 Oliver Rathkolb; Part 3 Regional Actors and Dynamics from Detente to the Second Cold War 193; 13 France, the European Community and the Maghreb, 1963-1976: From Inertia to Key Player 195 Houda Ben Hamouda; 14 Turkish Anti-Westernism: Restaging the Euro-Mediterranean World in the Era of Detente 207 Mehmet Dosemeci. 15 The Distant Neighbours: The Cooperation Agreements between the EE C and the Mashreq, 1977 221 Massimiliano Trentin; 16 Gaddafi's Libya: From Uncertain Alignment with the USSR to Support for Arab Terrorist Movements in the Mediterranean, 1974-1986 233 Massimiliano Cricco; Notes 241; Index 289.