The ability to reflect on practice is a fundamental component of effective medical practice. In a sector increasingly focused on professionalism and patient-centred care, Developing Reflective Practice is a timely publication providing practical guidance on how to acquire the reflective skills necessary to become a successful clinician. This new title draws from a wide range of theoretical and practical multidisciplinary perspectives to assist students, practitioners and educators in embedding reflection in everyday activities. It also offers structures and ideas for more purposeful and meaningful formal reflections and professional development. Developing Reflective Practice: * Focuses on the developing practitioner and their lifelong learning and the development of professional identity through reflection * Provides practical how-to information for students, practitioners and educators, including realistic case examples and practice-based hints and tips * Examines and explains the theoretical and conceptual approaches to reflective practice, including its models and frameworks.
Professor Andrew Grant is Dean of Medical Education at Swansea University Medical School, UK. Professor Judy McKimm is Professor of Medical Education and Director of Strategic Educational Development at Swansea University Medical School, UK. Professor Fiona Murphy is Professor of Clinical Nursing at the University of Limerick, Ireland.
Acknowledgements xi About the Authors xiii Part I What is Reflection? 1 1 Perspectives on Reflection 3 Reflective Learning: Making a Difference Andrew Grant 3 Start Early, Make it Routine Judy McKimm 5 Some Challenges for Reflective Practice Fiona Murphy 7 About the Book: Structure and Content Overview 8 2 What is Reflection and Why Do We Do It? 11 Why are Learners Required to Reflect? 11 The Place of Reflection in Professional Development 13 John Dewey s Contribution 15 What can be Achieved by Reflection? 15 Getting the Most Out of Reflection 16 Summary 18 3 Theoretical Underpinnings of Reflection 19 Kolb 20 Freire 20 Applying and Integrating Learning Through Reflection 21 Knowledge a Constantly-Changing Network 21 Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning 22 Reflection In Action, Reflection On Action Donald Schon 23 The Uncertain World of Practice 24 Emotional Content of Learning 24 Summary 25 4 Frameworks for Reflection 27 Introduction 27 Frameworks for Reflection 28 Kolb: Learning from Experience 28 Borton s Framework 29 Rolfe s Framework for Reflexive Practice 30 Gibbs: Learning by Doing 31 Summary 35 Part II Learning Reflection 37 5 Reflecting in Practice 39 Capturing and Describing the Experience 39 Less than a Minute Techniques 40 Voice Recordings 40 The Reflective Selfie 40 Emoticons 40 Word Whips 41 One to Five Minute Techniques 41 The Three a Day Technique 41 The Credit Card Technique 41 Time Limited 42 Analysing the Experience 43 Description: What Happened? 43 Feelings: What Were You Thinking and Feeling? 44 Evaluation: What Was Good and Bad About the Experience? 45 Analysis: How Can I Make Sense of This Experience? 45 Conclusion 47 Action Plan 48 Summary 49 6 Writing Reflectively 51 What is Reflective Writing? 51 Different Types of Reflective Writing 51 Creative Writing 52 Analytical Academic Reflective Writing 55 Journal Writing 55 Learning Outcomes 57 Dialogical Writing 57 Critical Incident Analysis 58 Reflective Essay 59 A Description of the Experience 60 Interpretation and Analysis 60 An Outcome 60 Portfolio Writing 61 Some Issues with Reflective Writing 61 Summary 62 7 Reflective Activities 63 Types of Reflective Learning Activity 63 Problem ]Based Learning 63 Case ]Based Learning 65 Supporting Reflective Learning 65 Supervision 65 Appraisal 66 Coaching and Mentoring 66 Coaching 68 Mentoring 70 Summary 70 8 Reflection, Critical Thinking and Action Research 71 Connecting Reflection and Knowledge Generation 71 Connecting Reflection, Knowledge and Research through Critical Thinking 72 1. Identifying and Challenging Assumptions 74 Our Autobiography 74 Our Patients and Clients Eyes 75 Our Colleagues Experiences 75 Theoretical Literature 75 2. Recognizing the Importance of Context 76 Constructing 76 Deconstructing 76 Confronting 76 Reconstructing 77 3. Exploring and Imagining Alternatives 77 4. Reflective Scepticism 78 Action Research: Connecting Reflection, Knowledge and Critical Thinking 78 Examples of Action Research 81 Summary 82 Part III Facilitating Reflection 83 9 Teaching and Supporting Reflection 85 Aims, Goals and Purpose 86 Supporting Learners to Get Started as Reflective Learners 87 Selecting the Right Method of Reflective Learning 88 Using Learning Technologies to Enable Reflection 93 Peer Learning 94 Reflection as Part of Developing Professional Identity 95 Evaluating Reflective Learning and Teaching 97 Summary 98 10 Assessing Reflection 99 What Are You Looking For in Reflective Assessment? 100 Marking Reflective Work a Cause of Potential Conflict 100 Effects of Making Reflective Learning Compulsory 101 Strategies to Discourage Students from Writing What They Think the Tutor Wants to Read or Will Gain Them Good Marks 102 Creating a Robust, Defensible Assessment for Your Students Reflective Work 104 Ensuring Robust, Valid, Reliable Assessment 105 Summary 107 Part IV Developing as a Reflective Practitioner 109 11 The Role of Reflection in Developing Professional Identity 111 How Does Reflective Practice Form Professional Identity? 112 How Can Reflection Be Challenging to Professional Identity? 113 Self Theories, PIF and Reflective Practice 114 How Can Guided Reflection Be Challenging Without Being Threatening? 116 Summary 117 12 Reflection, Revalidation and Appraisal 119 Adult Learning Andragogy 119 1. The Need to Know 120 2. The Learners Self-Concept 120 3. The Role of the Learners Experiences 121 4. Readiness to Learn 121 5. Orientations to Learning 121 6. Motivation 121 Maximizing Learning Return on Effort 122 A Curriculum Based on Your Experience 123 Learning that is Intrinsically Rewarding 125 Keeping a Record for CPD, Appraisal and Revalidation 126 Demonstrating Learning and Development over Time 127 Summary 128 References and Resources 129 References 129 Further Resources 135 Index 137