Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness

Deviance and Medicalization: From Badness to Sickness

By: Peter Conrad (author)Paperback

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This classic text on the nature of deviance, originally published in 1980, is now reissued with a new Afterword by the authors. In this new edition of their award-winning book, Conrad and Schneider investigate the origins and contemporary consequences of the medicalization of deviance. They examine specific cases-madness, alcoholism, opiate addiction, homosexuality, delinquency, and child abuse-and draw out their theoretical and policy implications. In a new chapter, the authors address developments in the last decade-including AIDS, domestic violence, co-dependency, hyperactivity in children, and learning disabilities-and they discuss the fate of medicalization in the 1990s with the changes in medicine and continued restrictions on social services.

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About Author

Peter Conrad is Professor of Sociology at Brandeis University. He has also co-edited Health and Health Care In Developing Countries (Temple) with Eugene B. Gallagher.


1. Deviance, Definitions, and the Medical Profession Sociological orientations to deviance * Witchcraft in Salem Village * Universality and relativity of deviance * Social control * The medical profession and deviance in America * Emergence of the medical profession: up to 1850 * Crusading, deviance, and medical monopoly: the case of abortion * Growth of medical expertise and professional dominance * Structure of medical practice * Overview of the book * Suggested readings 2. From Badness to Sickness: Changing Designations of Deviance and Social Control A historical-social constructionist approach to deviance * Deviance as collective action: the labeling-interactionist tradition * Social construction of reality: a sociology of knowledge * Politics of definition * Politics of deviance designation * Deviance, illness, and medicalization * The social construction of illness * Illness and deviance * Medicalization of deviance * Expansion of medical jurisdiction over deviance * The medical model and "moral neutrality" * Summary * Suggested readings 3. Medical Model of Madness: The Emergence of Mental Illness Smitten by madness: ancient Palestine * Roots of the medical model: classical Greece and Rome * Dominance of the theological model: the Middle Ages * Witchcraft, witch-hunts, and madness * The European experience: madness becomes mental illness * The great confinement * Separation of the able-bodied from the lunatics * Entrance of the physician * Emergence of a unitary concept of mental illness * The 19th-century American experience: the institutionalization of mental illness * Asylum-building movement: a new "cure" for insanity * The science of mental disease * Freud, psychoanalysis, and medicalization * Reappearance of the somaticists * Mental illness and the public * Reform and institutionalization * Public acceptance * Mental illness and criminal law * The third revolution in mental health * Psychotropic medication * Decline in mental hospital populations * Sociological research * Psychiatric critique * Community mental health: a bold, new approach * Federal action and professional growth * Community psychiatry * Community psychiatry and the medical model * Medical model of madness in the 1970s * Summary * Suggested readings 4. Alcoholism: Drunkenness, Inebriety, and the Disease Concept Physiology of alcohol: uncontested applications of the medical model * Alcohol and behavior: the question of control and the beginning of contest * Disinhibitor hypothesis * Deviant drinking as disease: historical foundations * Colonial period * The disease of inebriety and the concept of alcohol addiction * Disease concept and the American temperance movement * An enemy and a weapon: disease and abstinence * Rise of the inebriate asylum and the rush to Prohibition * Post-Prohibition rediscovery: the Yale Center, Alcoholics Anonymous, and the Jellinek formulation * Yale Research Center of Alcohol Studies * Alcoholics Anonymous * Jellinek formulation * Is alcoholism a disease? * Medical response to the disease concept * Supreme Court and the disease concept * Future of the disease concept of alcoholism * A coming crisis? * Scientific claims * Summary * Suggested readings 5. Opiate Addiction: The Fall and Rise of Medical Involvement Nature of opiates * A miracle drug: pre- 19th-century use of opiates * Politics of opium in the 19th century * Recreational use in England and China * Medical uses: from a panacea to a problem * Discovery of addiction as a disease * Addicts and addiction in a "dope fiend's paradise" * Entrepreneurs and the morality of opium: the creation of an evil * American attitudes toward opiate addiction: from empathy to anxiety * First prohibition of smoking opium * Discovery of heroin * Criminalization and demedicalization * A quest for international control and the United States' response * Harrison Act: the criminalization of addiction * Reign of the criminal designation * Addiction becomes a "criminal menace" * Why narcotics laws have failed * Reemergence of medical designations of addiction * Support for a medical designation * Excursus: the British experience * Methadone and the remedicalization of opiate addiction * "Heroin epidemic" and available treatment * Adoption of methadone maintenance as public policy * Methadone revisionists * A final note on methadone and medicalization * Summary * Suggested readings 6. Children and Medicalization: Delinquency, Hyperactivity, and Child Abuse Discovery of childhood * Origins of juvenile delinquency * Childhood deviance into the 19th century * Child-savers and the house of refuge * Child-savers and the ideology of child welfare * Juvenile court * William Healy, court clinics, and the child guidance movement * Medical-clinical model of delinquency today * Discovery of hyperkinesis * Medical diagnosis of hyperkinesis * Discovery of hyperkinesis * A sociological analysis * Child abuse as a medical problem * Historical notes on the maltreatment of children * Child protection * Medical involvement and the discovery of child abuse * Child abuse as a medical and social problem * Social scientists' views of child abuse * Changes in the definitions of what constitutes child abuse * Children as a population "at risk" for medicalization * Suggested readings 7. Homosexuality: From Sin to Sickness to Life-Style Moral foundations: the sin against nature * Ancient origins: the Persians and Hebrews * Contributions of the Greeks * From sin to crime: early Christianity and the Middle Ages * New moral consensus: sin becomes sickness * Medicine and moral continuity in the 18th century * Masturbation and threatened manhood: a crusade in defense of moral health * Consolidating the medical model: the invention of homosexuality * Hereditary predisposition * Criminalization and medicalization * Homosexuality as a medical pathology * Rise of the psychiatric perspective * Contribution of Freud * Sacrificing Freud: the reestablishment of pathology and the promise of cure * Demedicalization: the continuing history of a challenge * The armor of pioneering defense: "nature," knowledge, and medicine * Spreading skepticism: social change and social science research * Rise of gay liberation: homosexuality as identity and life-style * Official death of pathology: the American Psychiatric Association decision on homosexuality * Beyond sickness, what? * Summary * Suggested readings 8. Medicine and Crime: The Search for the Born Criminal and the Medical Control of Criminality - Richard Moran The therapeutic ideal and the search for the born criminal * Lombroso and the emergence of a biological criminology * Danger of therapeutic tyranny * A century of biomedical research * Psychosurgery and the control of violence * The XYY chromosome carrier * The Lombrosian recapitulation * Behavior modification * Positive reinforcement * Negative reinforcement * Biotechnology * CIA and mind control * Summary and implications * Suggested readings 9. Medicine as an Institution of Social Control: Consequences for Society Types of medical social control * Medical technology * Medical collaboration * Medical ideology * Social consequences of medicalizing deviance * Brighter side * Darker side * Exclusion of evil * Medicalization of deviance and social policy * Criminal justice: decriminalization, decarceration, and the therapeutic state * Trends in medicine and medicalization * Punitive backlash * Some social policy recommendations * Medicalizing deviance: a final note * Summary 10. A Theoretical Statement on the Medicalization of Deviance Historical and conceptual background * American society as fertile ground for medicalization * An inductive theory of the medicalization of deviance * A sequential model * Grounded generalizations * Sociologists as challengers * Hunches and hypotheses: notes for further research * A concluding remark * Summary Afterword: Deviance and Medicalization: A Decade Later Some conceptual issues * Deviance and Medicalization and social constructionism * Reflections on medicalized deviance a decade later * Mental illness * Alcoholism * Opiate addiction * Homosexuality * Hyperactivity, child abuse, and family violence * New areas of study and future issues * References Bibliography Author Index Subject Index

Product Details

  • publication date: 01/10/1992
  • ISBN13: 9780877229995
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 263
  • ID: 9780877229995
  • weight: 708
  • ISBN10: 0877229996

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