Dielectric Materials for Electrical Engineering

Dielectric Materials for Electrical Engineering

By: Juan Martinez-Vega (editor)Hardback

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Description

Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric polymers.

About Author

Juan Martinez Vega is Professor at Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France. He is the author/co-author of more than 200 papers. His particular fields of interest are dielectric and mechanical properties of polymeric materials, ageing and end of life models.

Contents

PART 1. GENERAL PHYSICS PHENOMENA 1 Chapter 1. Physics of Dielectrics 3 Guy BLAISE and Daniel TREHEUX 1.1. Definitions 3 1.2. Different types of polarization 4 1.3. Macroscopic aspects of the polarization 8 1.4. Bibliography 16 Chapter 2. Physics of Charged Dielectrics: Mobility and Charge Trapping 17 Guy BLAISE and Daniel TREHEUX 2.1. Introduction 17 2.2. Localization of a charge in an ideally perfect and pure polarizable medium 18 2.3. Localization and trapping of carriers in a real material 26 2.4. Detrapping 33 2.5. Bibliography 35 Chapter 3. Conduction Mechanisms and Numerical Modeling of Transport in Organic Insulators: Trends and Perspectives 37 Fulbert BAUDOIN, Christian LAURENT, Severine LE ROY and Gilbert TEYSSEDRE 3.1. Introduction 37 3.2. Molecular modeling applied to polymers 40 3.3. Macroscopic models 51 3.4. Trends and perspectives 63 3.5. Conclusions 68 3.6. Bibliography 69 Chapter 4. Dielectric Relaxation in Polymeric Materials 79 Eric DANTRAS, Jerome MENEGOTTO, Philippe DEMONT and Colette LACABANNE 4.1. Introduction 79 4.2. Dynamics of polarization mechanisms 79 4.3. Orientation polarization in the time domain 81 4.4. Orientation polarization in the frequency domain 83 4.5. Temperature dependence 87 4.6. Relaxation modes of amorphous polymers 92 4.7. Relaxation modes of semi-crystalline polymers 96 4.8. Conclusion 98 4.9. Bibliography 99 Chapter 5. Electrification 101 Gerard TOUCHARD 5.1. Introduction 101 5.2. Electrification of solid bodies by separation/contact 101 5.3. Electrification of solid particles 108 5.4. Conclusion 115 5.5. Bibliography 115 PART 2. PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED WITH ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AGEING 117 Chapter 6. Space Charges: Definition, History, Measurement 119 Alain TOUREILLE, Petru NOTINGHER, Jerome CASTELLON and Serge AGNEL 6.1. Introduction 119 6.2. History 120 6.3. Space charge measurement methods in solid insulators 123 6.4. Trends and perspectives 129 6.5. Bibliography 130 Chapter 7. Dielectric Materials under Electron Irradiation in a Scanning Electron Microscope 135 Omar JBARA, Slim FAKHFAKH, Sebastien RONDOT and Dominique MOUZE 7.1. Introduction 135 7.2. Fundamental aspects of electron irradiation of solids 136 7.3. Physics of insulators 141 7.4. Applications: measurement of the trapped charge or the surface potential 153 7.5. Conclusion 159 7.6. Bibliography 160 Chapter 8. Precursory Phenomena and Dielectric Breakdown of Solids 165 Christian MAYOUX, Nadine LAHOUD, Laurent BOUDOU and Juan MARTINEZ-VEGA 8.1. Introduction 165 8.2. Electrical breakdown 166 8.3. Precursory phenomena 168 8.4. Conclusion 179 8.5. Bibliography 180 Chapter 9. Models for Ageing of Electrical Insulation: Trends and Perspectives 189 Nadine LAHOUD, Laurent BOUDOU, Christian MAYOUX and Juan MARTINEZ-VEGA 9.1. Introduction 189 9.2. Kinetic approach according to Zhurkov 190 9.3. Thermodynamic approach according to Crine 195 9.4. Microscopic approach according to Dissado Mazzanti Montanari 200 9.5. Conclusions and perspectives 206 9.6. Bibliography 207 PART 3. CHARACTERIZATION METHODS AND MEASUREMENT 209 Chapter 10. Response of an Insulating Material to an Electric Charge: Measurement and Modeling 211 Philippe MOLINIE 10.1. Introduction 211 10.2. Standard experiments 212 10.3. Basic electrostatic equations 213 10.4. Dipolar polarization 215 10.5. Intrinsic conduction 218 10.6. Space charge, injection and charge transport 220 10.7. Which model for which material? 226 10.8. Bibliography 227 Chapter 11. Pulsed Electroacoustic Method: Evolution and Development Perspectives for Space Charge Measurement 229 Virginie GRISERI 11.1. Introduction 229 11.2. Principle of the method 230 11.3. Performance of the method 238 11.4. Diverse measurement systems 239 11.5. Development perspectives and conclusions 246 11.6. Bibliography 246 Chapter 12. FLIMM and FLAMM Methods: Localization of 3-D Space Charges at the Micrometer Scale 251 Anca PETRE, Didier MARTY-DESSUS, Laurent BERQUEZ and Jean-Luc FRANCESCHI 12.1. Introduction 251 12.2. The FLIMM method 252 12.3. The FLAMM method 254 12.4. Modeling of the thermal gradient 255 12.5. Mathematical deconvolution 255 12.6. Results 258 12.7. Conclusion 267 12.8. Bibliography 267 Chapter 13. Space Charge Measurement by the Laser-Induced Pressure Pulse Technique 271 David MALEC 13.1. Introduction 271 13.2. History 272 13.3. Establishment of fundamental equations for the determination of space charge distribution 272 13.4. Experimental setup 276 13.5. Performances and limitations 282 13.6. Examples of use of the method 283 13.7. Use of the LIPP method for surface charge measurement 285 13.8. Perspectives 285 13.9. Bibliography 285 Chapter 14. The Thermal Step Method for Space Charge Measurements 289 Alain TOUREILLE, Serge AGNEL, Petru NOTINGHER and Jerome CASTELLON 14.1. Introduction 289 14.2. Principle of the thermal step method (TSM) 290 14.3. Numerical resolution methods 297 14.4. Experimental set-up 299 14.5. Applications 306 14.6. Conclusion 321 14.7. Bibliography 322 Chapter 15. Physico-Chemical Characterization Techniques of Dielectrics 325 Christine MAYOUX and Christian MAYOUX 15.1. Introduction 325 15.2. Domains of application 326 15.3. The materials themselves 333 15.4. Conclusion 340 15.5. Bibliography 341 Chapter 16. Insulating Oils for Transformers 347 Abderrahmane BEROUAL, Christophe PERRIER, Jean-Luc BESSEDE 16.1. Introduction 347 16.2. Generalities 348 16.3. Mineral oils 352 16.4. Synthetic esters or pentaerythritol ester 357 16.5. Silicone oils or PDMS 363 16.6. Halogenated hydrocarbons or PCB 366 16.7. Natural esters or vegetable oils 367 16.8. Security of employment of insulating oils 370 16.9. Conclusion and perspectives 373 16.10. Bibliography 374 Chapter 17. Electrorheological Fluids 379 Jean-Numa FOULC 17.1. Introduction 379 17.2. Electrorheology 381 17.3. Mechanisms and modeling of the electrorheological effect 387 17.4. The conduction model 392 17.5. Giant electrorheological effect 396 17.6. Conclusion 397 17.7. Bibliography 397 Chapter 18. Electrolytic Capacitors 403 Pascal VENET 18.1. Introduction 403 18.2. Generalities 404 18.3. Electrolytic capacitors 410 18.4. Aluminum liquid electrolytic capacitors 411 18.5. (Solid electrolyte) tantalum electrolytic capacitors 414 18.6. Models and characteristics 417 18.7. Failures of electrolytic capacitors 426 18.8. Conclusion and perspectives 431 18.9. Bibliography 432 Chapter 19. Ion Exchange Membranes for Low Temperature Fuel Cells 435 Vicente COMPAN MORENO and Evaristo RIANDE GARCIA 19.1. Introduction 435 19.2. Homogenous cation-exchange membranes 438 19.3. Heterogenous ion exchange membranes 439 19.4. Polymer/acid membranes 441 19.5. Characterization of membranes 442 19.6. Experimental characterization of ion exchange membranes 457 19.7. Determination of membrane morphology using the SEM technique 469 19.8. Thermal stability 470 19.9. Acknowledgements 471 19.10. Bibliography 472 Chapter 20. Semiconducting Organic Materials for Electroluminescent Devices and Photovoltaic Conversion 477 Pascale JOLINAT and Isabelle SEGUY 20.1. Brief history 477 20.2. Origin of conduction in organic semiconductors 479 20.3. Electrical and optical characteristics of organic semiconductors 480 20.4. Application to electroluminescent devices 482 20.5. Application to photovoltaic conversion 486 20.6. The processing of organic semiconductors 489 20.7. Conclusion 491 20.8. Bibliography 491 Chapter 21. Dielectric Coatings for the Thermal Control of Geostationary Satellites: Trends and Problems 495 Stephanie REMAURY 21.1. Introduction 495 21.2. Space environment 496 21.3. The thermal control of space vehicles 501 21.4. Electrostatic phenomena in materials 503 21.5. Conclusion 512 21.6. Bibliography 513 Chapter 22. Recycling of Plastic Materials 515 Pilar MARTINEZ and Eva VERDEJO 22.1. Introduction 515 22.2. Plastic materials 516 22.3. Plastic residues 519 22.4. Bibliography 529 Chapter 23. Piezoelectric Polymers and their Applications 531 Alain BERNES 23.1. Introduction 531 23.2. Piezoelectric polymeric materials 532 23.3. Electro-active properties of piezoelectric polymers 538 23.4. Piezoelectricity applications 549 23.5. Transducers 551 23.6. Conclusion 556 23.7. Bibliography 556 Chapter 24. Polymeric Insulators in the Electrical Engineering Industry: Examples of Applications, Constraints and Perspectives 559 Jean-Luc BESSEDE 24.1. Introduction 559 24.2. Equipment 560 24.3. Power transformer insulation 565 24.4. Perspectives 567 24.5. Conclusion 570 24.6. Bibliography 570 List of Authors 573 Index 577

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781848211650
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 598
  • ID: 9781848211650
  • weight: 1000
  • ISBN10: 1848211651

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