This ninth volume in the series concentrates on in situ spectroscopic methods and combines a balanced mixture of theory and applications, making it highly readable for chemists and physicists, as well as for materials scientists and engineers. As with the previous volumes, all the chapters continue the high standards of this series, containing numerous references to further reading and the original literature, for easy access to this new field. The editors have succeeded in selecting highly topical areas of research and in presenting authors who are leaders in their fields, covering such diverse topics as diffraction studies of the electrode-solution interface, thin organic films at electrode surfaces, linear and non-linear spectroscopy as well as sum frequency generation studies of the electrified solid-solution interface, plus quantitative SNIFTIRS and PM-IRRAS. Special attention is paid to recent advances and developments, which are critically and thoroughly discussed. The result is a compelling set of reviews, serving equally well as an excellent and up-to-date source of information for experienced researchers in the field, as well as as an introduction for newcomers.
Richard C. Alkire, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA Dieter M. Kolb, Department of Electrochemistry, University of Ulm, Germany Jacek Lipkowski, Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Canada Philip N. Ross, Materials Science Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA
Series Preface. Volume Preface. List of Contributors. 1 In-situ X-ray Diffraction Studies of the Electrode/Solution Interface (Christopher A. Lucas and Nenad M. Markovic). 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Experimental. 1.3 Adsorbate-induced Restructuring of Metal Substrates. 1.4 Adlayer Structures. 1.5 Reactive Metals and Oxides. 1.6 Conclusions and Future Directions. Acknowledgments. References. 2 UV-visible Reflectance Spectroscopy of Thin Organic Films at Electrode Surfaces (Takamasa Sagara). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 The Basis of UV-visible Reflection Measurement at an Electrode Surface. 2.3 Absolute Reflection Spectrum versus Modulated Reflection Spectrum. 2.4 Wavelength-modulated UV-visible Reflectance Spectroscopy. 2.5 Potential-modulated UV-visible Reflectance Spectroscopy. 2.6 Instrumentation of the Potential-modulated UV-visible Reflection Measurement. 2.7 ER Measurements for Redox-active Thin Organic Films. 2.8 Interpretation of the Reflection Spectrum. 2.9 Reflection Measurement at Special Electrode Configurations. 2.10 Estimation of the Molecular Orientation on the Electrode Surface. 2.11 Measurement of Electron Transfer Rate using ER Measurement. 2.12 ER Signal Originated from Non-Faradaic Processes - a Quick Overview. 2.13 ER Signal with Harmonics Higher than the Fundamental Modulation Frequency. 2.14 Distinguishing between Two Simultaneously Occurring Electrode Processes. 2.15 Some Recent Examples of the Application of ER Measurement for a Functional Electrode. 2.16 Scope for Future Development of UV-visible Reflection Measurements. Acknowledgments. References. 3 Epi-fluorescence Microscopy Studies of Potential Controlled Changes in Adsorbed Thin Organic Films at Electrode Surfaces (Dan Bizzotto and Jeff L. Shepherd). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Fluorescence Microscopy and Fluorescence Probes. 3.3 Fluorescence near Metal Surfaces. 3.4 Description of a Fluorescence Microscope for Electrochemical Studies. 3.5 Electrochemical Systems Studied with Fluorescence Microscopy. 3.6 Conclusions and Future Considerations. Structures and Abbreviations. Acknowledgments. References. 4 Linear and Non-linear Spectroscopy at the Electrified Liquid/Liquid Interface (David J. Fermin). 4.1 Introductory Remarks and Scope of the Chapter. 4.2 Linear Spectroscopy. 4.3 Non-linear Spectroscopy. 4.4 Summary and Outlook. Acknowledgments. Symbols. Abbreviations. References. 5 Sum Frequency Generation Studies of the Electrified Solid/Liquid Interface (Steven Baldelli and Andrew A. Gewirth). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Applications of SFG to Electrochemistry. 5.3 Conclusion. Acknowledgments. References. 6 IR Spectroscopy of the Semiconductor/Solution Interface (Jean-Noel Chazalviel and Francois Ozanam). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 IR Spectroscopy at an Interface. 6.3 Practical Aspects at an Electrochemical Interface. 6.4 What can be Learnt from IR Spectroscopy at the Interface. 6.5 Effect of Light Polarization in ATR Geometry. 6.6 Dynamic Information from a Modulation Technique. 6.7 Case of Rough or Complex Interfaces. 6.8 Conclusion. References. 7 Recent Advances in in-situ Infrared Spectroscopy and Applications in Single-crystal Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis (Carol Korzeniewski). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Experimental. 7.3 Applications. 7.4 Summary. Acknowledgments. References. 8 In-situ Surface-enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy of the Electrode/Solution Interface (Masatoshi Osawa). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Electromagnetic Mechanism of SEIRA. 8.3 Experimental Procedures. 8.4 General Features of SEIRAS. 8.5 Selected Examples. 8.6 Advanced Techniques for Studying Electrode Dynamics. 8.7 Summary and Future Prospects. Acknowledgments. References. 9 Quantitative SNIFTIRS and PM IRRAS of Organic Molecules at Electrode Surfaces (Vlad Zamlynny and Jacek Lipkowski). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Reflection of Light from Stratified Media. 9.3 Optimization of Experimental Conditions. 9.4 Determination of the Angle of Incidence and the Thin-cavity Thickness. 9.5 Determination of the Isotropic Optical Constants in Aqueous Solutions. 9.6 Determination of the Orientation of Organic Molecules at the Electrode Surface. 9.7 Development of Quantitative SNIFTIRS. 9.8 Development of Quantitative in-situ PM IRRAS. 9.9 Summary and Future Directions. Acknowledgments. References. 10 Tip-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy - Recent Developments and Future Prospects (Bruno Pettinger). 10.1 General Introduction. 10.2 SERS at Well-defined Surfaces. 10.3 Single-molecule Raman Spectroscopy. 10.4 Tip-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS). 10.5 Outlook. Acknowledgment. References. Subject Index.