The control of diseases in crops is still largely dominated by the use of fungicides, but with the increasing incidence of fungicide resistance, plus mounting concern for the environment resulting from excessive agrochemical use, the search for alternative, reliable methods of disease control is gaining momentum. The purpose of this important book is to examine the development and exploitation (or potential for exploitation) of a range of non-chemical approaches to disease control, with a focus on the need for a greater understanding of crop ecology as the basis for effective disease control in the field. Chapters in the book, written by international experts in the subject area, include coverage of: biological control methods host-plant resistance the exploitation of tolerance and the use of bacteriophages Carefully edited by Professor Dale Walters, widely respected for his work in the area of crop protection, Disease Control in Crops is an essential reference book for plant pathologists, microbiologists, plant and agricultural scientists and crop protection specialists, including those working within, and providing consultancy to, the agrochemical industries.
Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences and agriculture are studied and taught should have copies of this timely publication on their shelves.
Professor Dale Walters is based at the Crop and Soil Systems research Group, Scottish Agricultural College, Edinburgh, U. K.
List of contributors Preface Chapter 1 Introduction Dale Walters 1.1 The importance of plant disease 1.2 Problems associated with controlling plant disease 1.3 Conclusions 1.4 Acknowledgements 1.5 References Chapter 2 Managing crop disease through cultural practices Dale Walters 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Reducing the amount of pathogen inoculum 2.3 Reducing pathogen spread within the crop 2.4 Soil amendments and mulching 2.5 Suppressive soils 2.6 Intercropping 2.7 Conclusions 2.8 Acknowledgements 2.9 References Chapter 3 Biological control agents in plant disease control John M. Whipps and Mark P. McQuilken 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Modes of action 3.3 Production, formulation and application 3.4 Commercial products available and uses 3.5 Factors affecting variable efficacy and constraints on commercial developments 3.6 Future research directions and conclusions 3.7 References Chapter 4 Induced resistance for plant disease control Tony Reglinski and Dale Walters 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Induced resistance in practice 4.3 Costs associated with induced resistance 4.4 Trade-offs associated with induced resistance 4.5 Future prospects 4.6 Acknowledgements 4.7 References Chapter 5 The use of composts and compost extracts in plant disease control Audrey Litterick and Martin Wood 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Definitions of composts, composting, compost extracts and compost teas 5.3 Production of composts and compost extracts/teas 5.4 History of the use of composts and compost extracts in crop production 5.5 Current use of composts and compost extracts/teas in crop production 5.6 Crop and soil health 5.7 Effects of composts on plant disease 5.8 Effects of compost extracts/teas on plant disease 5.9 Mechanisms involved in the suppression/control of plant disease using composts and compost extracts/teas 5.10 Conclusions and future work 5.11 References Chapter 6 The use of host plant resistance in disease control Hugh Wallwork 6.1 Introduction and benefits of resistance 6.2 Types of resistance 6.3 Sources of resistance 6.4 Breeding methodology and selection strategies for inbreeding crops 6.5 Deployment of resistance 6.6 Conclusion 6.7 References Chapter 7 Crop tolerance of foliar pathogens: possible mechanisms and potential for exploitation Ian Bingham and Adrian Newton 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Concepts and definitions - a historical perspective 7.3 Yield formation 7.4 How can tolerance be quantified? 7.5 Potential crop traits conferring tolerance 7.6 Is there a physiological or ecological cost to tolerance? 7.7 Role of modelling 7.8 Strategy for improving tolerance 7.9 Acknowledgements 7.10 References Chapter 8 Plant disease control through the use of variety mixtures Adrian Newton 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Trial demonstrations of mixtures 8.3 Mixtures used in practice 8.4 Conclusion 8.5 References Chapter 9 Biofumigation for plant disease control - from the fundamentals to the farming system John Kirkegaard 9.1 Introduction 9.2 The glucosinolate-myrosinase system 9.3 Modes of utilization 9.4 Separating GSL-related suppression from other effects of biofumigants 9.5 Maximizing biofumigation potential 9.6 Release efficiency, fate and activity of hydrolysis products in soil 9.7 Ecological considerations 9.8 Field implementation 9.9 Summary 9.10 References Chapter 10 Control of plant disease through soil solarization Abraham Gamliel and Jaacov Katan 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Principles of soil solarization 10.3 Pathogen and weed control 10.4 Mechanisms of control and plant-growth improvement 10.5 Integrated management 10.6 Modelling of soil solarization and decision-making tools 10.7 Improvements by intensifying soil heating 10.8 Implementation and application 10.9 Special uses of solarization 10.10 Solarization and the MB crisis 10.11 Concluding remarks 10.12 References Chapter 11 Plant disease control by nutrient management: sulphur Silvia Haneklaus, Elke Bloem and Ewald Schnug 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Sulphur-induced resistance - agronomic, physiological and molecular aspects 11.3 Perspectives in research 11.4 References Chapter 12 Control of plant disease by disguising the leaf surface Dale Walters 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Controlling disease using film-forming polymers 12.3 Particle films as agents for control of plant diseases 12.4 Disrupting spore adhesion to the leaf surface 12.5 Conclusions 12.6 Acknowledgements 12.7 References Chapter 13 Bacteriophages as agents for the control of plant pathogenic bacteria Botond Balogh, Timur Momol, Aleksa Obradovic and Jeffrey Jones 13.1 Introduction - disease control for bacterial diseases 13.2 Biological control 13.3 Early use of bacteriophages in agriculture 13.4 Recent approaches for using phages in plant pathology 13.5 Challenges in using phages for disease control 13.6 Phages as part of an integrated management strategy 13.7 Summary 13.8 References Chapter 14 Controlling plant disease using biological and environmentally friendly approaches: making it work in practice Dale Walters 14.1 Introduction 14.2 How might biologically based disease control be used in crop protection practice? 14.3 Biologically based disease control: barriers to implementation 14.4 Conclusions 14.5 Acknowledgements 14.6 References Index