Drugs and Crime: A Complex Relationship. Third revised and expanded edition (Health & Society Third revised and expanded edition)

Drugs and Crime: A Complex Relationship. Third revised and expanded edition (Health & Society Third revised and expanded edition)

By: Natacha Brunelle (author), Serge Brochu (author), Chantal Plourde (author), Julie da Silva (translator)Paperback

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Description

Discussing illegal drugs without taking into account its criminal context is a difficult proposition. Certain questions come back repeatedly: Does doing drugs really lead to delinquency? Do some drugs have criminal properties? Why would a drug addict turn to crime? What are the best methods of intervention in dealing with individuals who have serious drug habits? The third edition of Drogue et criminalit Une relation complexe (Les Presses de l'Universit de Montr al), translated here for the first time in English, presents an overview of the complex relationship between drugs and crime, avoids cursory affirmations to the effect that psychoactive substance use necessarily leads to crime. It also sheds light on the political and legislative contexts tied to drugs and offers an exceptional synthesis of the research literature of the past 20 years. The authors also discuss the increased attention to illegal drug users and people with addictions, and describe the different supports that are available to them.

About Author

Serge Brochu, Ph.D. Psychology, is Full Professor at Universit de Montr al's cole de criminologie, Honorary President of the International Society for Criminology, and President of the Association des intervenants en d pendance du Qu bec (AIDQ). He is a researcher at the Groupe de recherche et intervention sur les substances psychoactives-Qu bec (RISQ) and at the Centre international de criminologie compar e (CICC). He is also the scientific director of the Institut universitaire sur les d pendances (IUD). Natacha Brunelle, Ph.D. Criminology, is Full Professor at the D partement de psycho ducation, Universit du Qu bec Trois-Rivi res, and Canada Research Chair in Drug Use Patterns and Related Problems. She is also a researcher affiliated with RISQ, CICC and IUD. Chantal Plourde, Ph.D. Criminology, is Full Professor at the D partement de psycho ducation, Universit du Qu bec Trois-Rivi res. She is also a researcher affiliated with RISQ and CICC, and director of the UQTR section of the CICC.

Contents

List of Figures and Tables.......................................................... ix Acknowledgments...................................................................... xi INTRODUCTION....................................................................... 1 Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada................................. 2 Drug Use and Criminal Behaviour.............................................. 3 CHAPTER 1 Links Between Drugs and Crime in Facts and Figures............... 5 Youth........................................................................................... 6 Adults.......................................................................................... 9 Justice-involved Individuals....................................................... 9 Drugs in Prison......................................................................... 12 Substance-dependent Individuals............................................. 15 CHAPTER 2 Drugs: A Detailed Criminogenic Profile................................. 19 Selected Important Definitions................................................ 20 Intoxication and Criminal Behaviour....................................... 22 Cannabinoids............................................................................ 22 Stimulants................................................................................. 26 Cocaine..................................................................................... 26 Amphetamine-type Stimulants................................................. 28 Benzodiazepines....................................................................... 30 Heroin and Other Opioids........................................................ 32 Hallucinogens........................................................................... 33 Drug Interactions...................................................................... 34 Victimization While Under the Influence of a Psychoactive Substance............................................................ 35 The Role of Intoxication........................................................... 38 Dependence and Criminal Behaviour....................................... 38 How Users Support Their Habit............................................... 39 Crime as an Income-generating Activity.................................. 40 Acquisitive Crime..................................................................... 41 Trafficking................................................................................. 43 Other Lucrative Criminal Activities.......................................... 46 Links Between Dependence and Criminal Activity.................. 46 CHAPTER 3 The Legal and Political Landscape ........................................... 51 The Road to Repression............................................................. 51 Globalization of Trade............................................................... 51 Prohibition................................................................................. 54 The War on Drugs..................................................................... 56 Action Against Drug Producers................................................ 56 Action Against Drug Importers and Distributors..................... 57 Action Against Users ............................................................... 60 Europe....................................................................................... 65 The Netherlands........................................................................ 66 Portugal..................................................................................... 67 The Americas............................................................................ 69 The United States...................................................................... 69 Uruguay..................................................................................... 70 Canada....................................................................................... 70 Different Concepts and Approaches ......................................... 73 Normalizing the Relationship With Users................................. 74 CHAPTER 4 Proximal and Distal Models: A Static Conceptualization........ 79 Proximal Elements.................................................................... 79 Goldstein's Tripartite Model..................................................... 80 The Psychopharmacological Model ......................................... 80 The Economic-Compulsive Model........................................... 83 The Systemic Model................................................................. 87 Non-Mutually Exclusive Types of Crime................................ 92 The Inverse Proximal Model.................................................... 93 Distal Elements......................................................................... 96 CHAPTER 5 Trajectories: A Dynamic Conceptualization........................... 101 The Evolving Drug-Crime Relationship ............................... 102 Deviant Trajectories................................................................ 104 Experimentation and Occasional Use .....................................105 Frequent Use........................................................................... 106 Regular Use............................................................................ 107 Addiction................................................................................ 110 Factors That Influence the Progression and Maintenance of Deviant Trajectories........................................................... 112 The Substance Itself............................................................... 112 Income.................................................................................... 113 Environment .......................................................................... 113 Traumatic Events.................................................................... 114 Reduction, Cessation, and Interruption.................................. 115 Peer Pressure ......................................................................... 115 Internal Pressure..................................................................... 116 Organizational Pressure......................................................... 116 Deviant Environment Pressures............................................. 116 Women's Distinctive Trajectory............................................. 117 CHAPTER 6 Deviant Lifestyles: An Integrated Conceptualization............. 123 The Integrative Model ............................................................ 124 Risk Factors............................................................................ 125 Deviant Lifestyles................................................................... 126 Degrees of Permeation ........................................................... 128 Stages of Progression.............................................................. 128 CHAPTER 7 Treating Addicts in the Criminal Justice System.................... 139 Access to Treatment.................................................................139 Punishment or Rehabilitation?.................................................140 "Nothing Works"......................................................................141 The Punitive Post-Martinson Era............................................ 141 "What Works?"....................................................................... 142 Treating Drug Dependence in Offenders................................ 143 Drug Courts............................................................................ 143 Post-sentencing Treatment..................................................... 145 Cognitive-Behavioural Programs........................................... 147 Therapeutic Communities and Boot Camps........................... 148 Peer Support and Twelve-Step Groups...................................150 Methadone Maintenance Programs........................................ 150 Motivational Interviewing ..................................................... 152 Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders... 152 Ingredients for Treatment Success...........................................153 Screening and Assessment...................................................... 154 Personalized Plans.................................................................. 155 Relapse Prevention................................................................. 156 Motivation ............................................................................. 156 Judicial Pressure .................................................................... 158 The Therapeutic Relationship................................................. 161 Adequate Treatment Duration................................................. 162 Aftercare................................................................................. 163 Extension of Social Control.................................................... 164 The Real Client....................................................................... 165 Boundaries and Bridges ......................................................... 166 Conclusion ............................................................................. 171 The Drug-Crime Relationship .............................................. 173 Who?...................................................................................... 173 Why?...................................................................................... 174 What?..................................................................................... 174 How Can Society Intervene?................................................. 175 Implementing Appropriate Policies....................................... 175 Providing Suitable Care......................................................... 177 References.............................................................................. 179 Authors and Translator........................................................... 225

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780776626321
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 240
  • ID: 9780776626321
  • weight: 329
  • ISBN10: 0776626329
  • translations: French
  • language of text: English
  • edition: Third revised and expanded edition

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