Earth is made up of four basic parts: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere. The atmosphere is made up of the gases that surround the planet. The hydrosphere consists of the water in the oceans, lakes, rivers, and air. The lithosphere is the rocky surface of Earth both on land and under the oceans. The biosphere encompasses all living things on Earth. The actions and interactions between these components are what make the Earth a constantly changing entity. Weather changes, rain falls, soil washes away, and plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, all through the properties of solids, liquids, and gases. Clear and concise, ""Earth Chemistry"" explains these chemical or physical changes on Earth, exploring how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere relate to and interact with one another.