Education is seen as one of the key factors for development and it is given high priority in development agendas. This book exemplifies the links between schooling and development in Gilgit-Baltistan in northern Pakistan, which is considered a model region for successful educational expansion and rural development. In this cutting-edge academic study , the author shows in detail the trajectories of educational development in Gilgit-Baltistan from the earliest schools to the establishment of the first university and provides explanations for educational disparities along the lines of regional and intra-denominational variation, as well as socio-economic and gender-related inequalities. This original research work with in-depth village case studies in three unique rural communities of Gilgit-Baltistan provides robust empirical data, analyzed through a state-of the art multi-disciplinary theoretical framework and field work methodology. In detail, the logics of educational choices are analyzed and explained in their local socio-cultural context. Many households could strongly benefit from their education strategies.
But the study also draws attention to persisting gender disparities and the threat of a deepening educational and socio-economic divide. It creates awareness for the problems of the educationally marginalized and their unequal chances to participate in education and its benefits.
Dr. Andreas Benz is research associate at the Centre for Development Studies (ZELF), Freie Universitat, Berlin, Germany. He studied Human Geography, Islamic Studies and Political Science at Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat, Freiburg, and Freie Universitat, Berlin. He completed his PhD in 2011 on the topic of education and development in Gilgit-Baltistan, northern Pakistan, based on numerous research visits to the region between 2006 and 2010. Since 2011, he has been a member and research associate for Crossroads Asia: Conflict, Migration, Development, a research network, for which he is conducting a 4-year research study on student mobility and migration in northern Pakistan and north-western India.
List of Tables ; List of Figures ; List of Abbreviations ; 1 Introduction: The Sparkle in the Mountains ; 2 Theoretical Perspectives on Education and ; Development ; 2.1 Education and Development Theories ; 2.2 Economics of Education and Human Capital ; Approach ; 2.3 Sociology of Education ; 2.4 Synopsis: A Dialectical Perspective on Education for Development ; 3 Research Design ; 3.1 Analytical Framework and Research ; Questions ; 3.2 Methodology ; 3.3 Structure of Secondary Sources on Education in Gilgit-Baltistan ; 4 Introduction to the Research Region ; 4.1 Dynamics of Livelihood Change in Gilgit-Baltistan ; 4.2 Introduction to the Case Study Villages ; 5 The Education System in Pakistan and Gilgit-Baltistan ; 5.1 The Challenges of Education in Pakistan ; 5.2 The Rise of Non-Elitist Private Schools ; 5.3 A Short History of Educational Expansion in Gilgit-Baltistan ; 6 The State of Education in Gilgit-Baltistan in Regional and Historical Perspective ; 6.1 Regional Disparities in the Levels of Education in Gilgit-Baltistan ; 6.2 Regional Disparities in Enrolment in Gilgit-Baltistan ; 6.3 Gilgit-Baltistan's Rising Education Levels in Historical Perspective ; 7 Livelihood Strategies on Education ; 7.1 Rationales and Motives for Educational Behaviour and Expectations of Future Education Outcomes ; 7.2 'Housework for Girls, Education for Boys?' - Gendered Education Rationales ; 7.3 Parents' Considerations on the 'Right Type of ; Education' and their School ; Preferences ; Opening the Black Box: Intra-Household ; Decision-Making, Gender Roles and the ; Division of Labour ; 7.4.1 Intra-Household Status Hierarchies and Unequal Power in Decision-Making ; 7.4.2 Mobilization of Household Resources for Education Strategies - Who Takes on the Burdens and Costs of Education? ; 7.4.3 Intra-Household Resource Allocation for ; Educational Investments: Unequal ; Distribution of Educational opportunities ; 7.5 Relevance of Parents' Education Level for ; Children's Education ; 7.6 Education Migration: Ways to Higher Education ; 7.7 Alternative Ways to Obtain Higher Education - Distance Education, Home Learning, and Coaching Classes ; 8 Educational Outcomes ; 8.1 Participation in Formal Sector Employment and Business Activities ; 8.2 Education and Income ; 8.3 Labour Migration: Between Brain-Drain and Beneficial Remittances ; 8.4 Political Participation and Civil Society ; 8.5 Female Education and Empowerment - Changing Gender Roles in the Household and the Community ; 8.6 Education and Changing Prospects in the "Marriage Market" ; 9 Conclusion and Final Remarks ; References ; Annexures