Efficient Carbon Capture for Coal Power Plants

Efficient Carbon Capture for Coal Power Plants

By: Viktor Scherer (editor), Detlef Stolten (editor)Hardback

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Description

Carbon Capture and Storage is a key technology for a sustainable and low carbon economy. This book unites top academic and industry researchers in search for commercial concepts for CCS at coal power ploants. This reference focuses on power plant technology and ways to improve efficiency. It details the three principal ways of capturing the CO2 produced in power plants: oxyfuel combustion, postcombustion and precombustion, with the main part concentrating on the different approaches to removing carbon dioxide. Wtih an eye on safety, the authors explain how the three parts of the CCS chain work - capture, transport and storage - and how they can be performed safely. The result is specific insights for process engineers, chemists, physicists and materials engineers in their relevant fields, as well as a sufficiently broad scope to be able to understand the opportunities and implications of the other disciples.

About Author

Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Forschungszentrum Julich. Prof. Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal,Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. In 1998 he accepted the position of Director of the Institute of Materials and Process Technology at the Research Center Julich. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's research focuses on fuel cells, implementing results from research in innovative products, procedures and processes in collaboration with industry, contributing towards bridging the gap between science and technology. His research activities are focused on energy process engineering of SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. electrochemistry, stack technology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten represents Germany in the Executive Committee of the IEA Annex Advanced Fuel Cells and is on the advisory board of the journal Fuel Cells. Viktor Scherer is the Head of the Department of Energy Plant Technology at the University of Bochum, Germany. He received his doctorate from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technolgy (KIT), Germany. Prof. Scherer worked for more than 10 years in the power plant industry for ABB and Alstom. In 2000 he was appointed as a Professor in Energy Plant Technology at the University of Bochum. His research activities are focused on the analysis and description of chemically reacting flow fields in the energy related industry, like power plant, steel and cement industry. Another research aspect is the integration of membranes for carbon capture into Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants. Prof. Scherer is a member of the scientific advisory board of the VGB Power Tech, the European Association of power and heat generation.

Contents

Preface XIII List of Contributors XV Part 1 Introduction and Overview 1 The Case for Carbon Capture and Storage 3 Klaus S. Lackner Abstract 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Dilution versus Treatment 4 1.3 Carbon Reservoirs 5 1.4 Excess Carbon 5 1.5 The Scale of Carbon Capture and Storage 6 1.6 Storage Capacity Requirements 7 1.7 Conclusion 8 References 9 2 Advanced Power Plant Technology 11 Hartmut Spliethoff Abstract 11 2.1 Introduction 11 2.2 History of the Development of Power Plants Correlation Between Unit Size, Availability, and Efficiency 12 2.3 Possibilities for Efficiency Increases in the Development of a Steam Power Plant 15 References 40 3 Capture Options for Coal Power Plants 45 Ernst Riensche, Jewgeni Nazarko, Sebastian Schiebahn, Michael Weber, Li Zhao, and Detlef Stolten Abstract 45 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Requirements on CO2 Capture and Compression 47 3.3 CO2 Capture Routes 53 3.4 Gas Separation Tasks and Methods 54 3.5 Plant Concepts for Carbon Capture 65 3.6 Carbon Dioxide Compression 74 3.7 Conclusion 75 Acknowledgments 75 References 76 4 Life Cycle Assessment for Power Plants with CCS 83 Peter Viebahn Abstract 83 4.1 Introduction 83 4.2 Life Cycle Assessment as an Assessment Method 84 4.3 Review of Life Cycle Assessments Along the Whole CCS Chain 85 4.4 Results 99 4.5 Constraints of LCA Regarding an Assessment of CCS 102 4.6 Comparison of Electricity from CCS and from Renewable Energies 104 4.7 Conclusion on Needs for Action 105 Acknowledgment 107 References 107 Part 2 CO2 Scrubbing 5 Physics and Chemistry of Absorption for CO2 Capture to Coal Power Plants 113 Paul Feron and Graeme Puxty Abstract 113 5.1 Gas Separation for CO2 Capture 113 5.2 Process Engineering and Performance 120 5.3 Physical Absorption 124 5.4 Chemical Absorption 131 5.5 Physical Properties 145 5.6 Outlook 146 Acknowledgments 147 Symbols and Nomenclature 147 References 149 Materials for CO2Scrubbing 6 Chemical Absorption Materials for CO2 Capture 155 Kaj Thomsen Abstract 155 6.1 Introduction 155 6.2 Alkanolamines 157 6.3 Sodium and Potassium Carbonates 160 6.4 Ammonia 162 6.5 Amino Acid Salts 167 6.6 Ionic Liquids 168 6.7 Conclusion 168 References 169 7 Physical Absorption Materials for CO2 Capture 175 Sebastian Schiebahn, Li Zhao and Marcus Grunewald Abstract 175 7.1 Introduction 175 7.2 Pre-Combustion Capture in IGCC 176 7.3 Physical Absorption Materials and Processes 179 7.4 Conclusions and Outlook 195 References 196 Processes for CO2 Scrubbing 8 CO2 Removal in Coal Power Plants via Post-Combustion with Absorbents 201 Hans Fahlenkamp, Bernhard Epp, Stefan Telge, Christina Stankewitz, and Martin Dittmar Abstract 201 8.1 Tail-End CO2 Capture 202 8.2 Demonstration Plants and Pilot Plants 216 8.3 Conclusion 236 Symbols and Abbreviations 237 References 238 9 CO2 Removal in Coal Power Plants via Pre-Combustion with Physical Absorption 241 Stephane Walspurger, Eric van Dijk, and Ruud van den Brink Abstract 241 9.1 Introduction 242 9.2 The Sorption-Enhanced Water Gas Shift Process 250 9.3 Sorption Processes and Material Development for SEWGS 256 9.4 Conclusion and Outlook 263 Acknowledgments 264 References 264 Part 3 CO2 Removal with Cryogenic Air Separation 10 CO2 Capture via the Oxyfuel Process with Cryogenic Air Separation 271 Alfons Kather and Mathias Klostermann Abstract 271 10.1 Introduction 271 10.2 Flue Gas Recycle 273 10.3 Combustion 276 10.4 CO2 Purification and Capture 278 10.5 Efficiency 284 10.6 Current Developments 291 References 292 Part 4 Separation with Membranes 11 Physics of Membrane Separation of CO2 297 Matthias Wessling Abstract 297 11.1 Introduction 297 11.2 Macroscopic Mass Transport 300 11.3 Permeation Through Materials 302 11.4 Membrane Geometries and Morphologies 309 11.5 Fluid Dynamics and Modules 310 11.6 Process Design 313 11.7 Conclusion 315 References 316 Materials for Membrane Separation of CO2 12 Inorganic Membranes for CO2 Separation 319 Wilhelm A. Meulenberg, Ingolf Voigt, Ralf Kriegel, Stefan Baumann, Mariya Ivanova, and Tim van Gestel Abstract 319 12.1 Introduction 320 12.2 Membranes for Gas Separation 321 12.3 Conclusion and Outlook 343 References 344 13 Polymer Membranes for CO2 Separation 351 Sander R. Reijerkerk, Kitty Nijmeijer, Jens Potreck, Katja Simons, and Matthias Wessling Abstract 351 13.1 Introduction 352 13.2 Polymer Membranes for CO2 Capture 354 13.3 Theoretical Gas and Vapor Transport Through Dense Polymer Membranes 360 13.4 Gas and Vapor Transport Through Dense Polymer Membranes for Flue Gas Treatment 364 13.5 Conclusion 374 References 376 Processes for Membrane Separation of CO2 14 CO2 Separation via the Post-Combustion Process with Membranes in Coal Power Plants 381 Peter Michael Follmann, Christoph Bayer, Matthias Wessling, and Thomas Melin Abstract 381 14.1 Introduction 381 14.2 Process Boundary Conditions 382 14.3 Membranes and Membrane Modeling 386 14.4 Membrane Processes 391 14.5 Economics of Membrane Processes for CO2 Capture 399 14.6 Summary and Conclusions 400 Acknowledgment 400 References 401 15 CO2 Separation via the Oxyfuel Process with O2-Transport Membranes in Coal Power Plants 405 Franz Beggel, Nicolas Nauels, and Michael Modigell Abstract 405 15.1 Introduction 405 15.2 MIEC Membrane Operating Concepts 406 15.3 Hard Coal Membrane-Based Oxyfuel Process 408 15.4 Literature Review of Membrane-Based Oxyfuel Processes 416 15.5 Towards Realization Module Design 421 15.6 Conclusion 427 References 428 16 CO2 Separation via Pre-Combustion Utilizing Membranes in Coal Power Plants 431 Viktor Scherer and Johannes Franz Abstract 431 16.1 Introduction 431 16.2 Process Conditions, Membrane Characteristics, Classification Numbers, Permeation Laws, and Water Gas Shift 432 16.3 Pre-Combustion Concepts with Scrubbing Technologies 444 16.4 Pre-Combustion Concepts with CO2-Selective Membranes 445 16.5 Pre-Combustion Concepts with H2-Selective Membranes 453 16.6 Conclusion 466 References 468 Part 5 Chemical Looping for CO2 Separation 17 Chemical Looping Materials for CO2 Separation 475 Anders Lyngfelt and Tobias Mattisson Abstract 475 17.1 Introduction 475 17.2 Chemical Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels 478 17.3 Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) 478 17.4 Chemical Looping Reforming 479 17.5 Chemical Looping Gasification of Solid Fuels 480 17.6 Oxygen Carrier Development 481 17.7 Reactor Design and Operational Experience in Chemical Looping Combustors 493 17.8 Reactivity and Solids Inventory 495 17.9 Conclusion 495 References 496 18 Chemical Looping in Power Plants 505 Bernd Epple and Jochen Strohle Abstract 505 18.1 Introduction 505 18.2 Chemical Looping Combustion 506 18.3 Carbonate Looping Process 514 18.4 Conclusion 520 References 522 Part 6 Transportation and Storage of CO2 19 CO2 Compression 527 Mark A. Gray Abstract 527 19.1 CO2 Compression and Storage Magnitude of the Issue 527 19.2 CO2 Compression Energy Consumption Heat Integration 528 19.3 Heat Recovery Opportunities 532 19.4 CO2 Purity and Pipeline Transport Issues 533 19.5 CO2 Storage Development Prudent Practices 534 19.6 Public Policy and Long-Term Liability 537 19.7 Conclusion 539 References 540 20 CO2 Transport The Missing Link for CCS 541 Chris A. Hendriks, Erika de Visser, and Joris Koornneef Abstract 541 20.1 Introduction 541 20.2 Experience with CO2 Transport 542 20.3 CO2 Transport by Pipeline 544 20.4 CO2 Transport by Ship 552 20.5 Ships Compared with Pipelines 557 20.6 CO2 Infrastructure Networks 558 20.7 Regulation and Investment Decisions 561 20.8 Strategic Planning for Pipelines 565 References 568 21 Storage of Fossil Carbon 573 Klaus S. Lackner Abstract 573 21.1 Introduction 573 21.2 Summary of Storage Options 574 21.3 Current Activities 578 21.4 Utilization Versus Disposal 581 21.5 Different Forms of Stored Carbon 584 21.6 Storage Lifetime 591 21.7 Storage Capacity Requirements 592 21.8 Closing Natural Carbon Cycles 593 21.9 The Role of Alkalinity 593 21.10 Storage Safety 594 21.11 Storage Accountability 595 21.12 Conclusion 596 References 598 Index 601

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527330027
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 640
  • ID: 9783527330027
  • weight: 1376
  • ISBN10: 352733002X

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