Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Storage and Conversion: 2 Volume Set

Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Storage and Conversion: 2 Volume Set

By: Hansan Liu (editor), Lei Zhang (editor), Jiujun Zhang (editor), Ru-Shi Liu (editor), Andy Sun (editor)Hardback

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Description

In this handbook and ready reference, editors and authors from academia and industry share their in-depth knowledge of known and novel materials, devices and technologies with the reader. The result is a comprehensive overview of electrochemical energy and conversion methods, including batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, hydrogen generation and storage as well as solar energy conversion. Each chapter addresses electrochemical processes, materials, components, degradation mechanisms, device assembly and manufacturing, while also discussing the challenges and perspectives for each energy storage device in question. In addition, two introductory chapters acquaint readers with the fundamentals of energy storage and conversion, and with the general engineering aspects of electrochemical devices. With its uniformly structured, self-contained chapters, this is ideal reading for entrants to the field as well as experienced researchers.

About Author

Ru-Shi Liu is Professor at the Department of Chemistry of the National Taiwan University in Teipei where his research is focused on materials chemistry. After his PhD he joined the Materials Research Laboratories at the Industrial Technology Research Institute in Hsinchu, Taiwan, before returning to Teipei. He received various honors, including the Outstanding Young Chemist Award from the Chinese Chemical Society. Andy Sun holds a Canada Research Chair in the development nanomaterials and clean energy, and is Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at University of Western Ontario, Canada. The scope of his research ranges from fundamental science and applied nanotechnology to emerging engineering issues, specifically fuel cells, Li-ion batteries and energetic materials. Hansan Liu is Research Associate at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, Canada. He obtained his PhD from Xiamen University, China. Hansan Liu has ten years of research experience in the field of electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices, including Ni-MH batteries, lithium ion batteries as well as direct methanol and polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cells. Lei Zhang is Research Council Officer at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. She received her degrees in materials science and engineering from the Wuhan University of Technology, China, and an additional master degree in inorganic chemistry from the Simon Fraser University, Canada. Her research emphasis is on cost-effective catalyst development for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Jiujun Zhang is Senior Research Officer at the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation. He received his PhD from Wuhan University and took up a position at the Huazhong Normal University, followed by postdoctoral research at the California Institute of Technology, USA, University of York, UK, and the University of British Columbia, Canada. Jiujun Zhang has more than thirteen years of experience in fuel cell research and development.

Contents

Contents to Volume 1 Contents to Volume 2 XVI Preface XVII About the Editors XIX List of Contributors XXI 1 Electrochemical Technologies for Energy Storage and Conversion 1 Neelu Chouhan and Ru-Shi Liu 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Global Energy Status: Demands, Challenges, and Future Perspectives 1 1.3 Driving Forces behind Clean and Sustainable Energy Sources 5 1.4 Green and Sustainable Energy Sources and Their Conversion: Hydro, Biomass, Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Biofuel 11 1.5 Electrochemistry: a Technological Overview 15 1.6 Electrochemical Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors (Li Ion Batteries, Lead-Acid Batteries, NiMH Batteries, Zinc Air Batteries, Liquid Redox Batteries) 17 1.7 Light Fuel Generation and Storage: Water Electrolysis, Chloro-Alkaline Electrolysis, Photoelectrochemical and Photocatalytic H2 Generation, and Electroreduction of CO2 25 1.8 Fuel Cells: Fundamentals to Systems (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells, PEM Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, Molten Carbon Fuel Cells, and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) 32 1.9 Summary 38 Acknowledgments 39 References 39 Further Reading 43 2 Electrochemical Engineering Fundamentals 45 Zhongwei Chen, Fathy M. Hassan, and Aiping Yu 2.1 Electrical Current/Voltage, Faraday s Laws, Electric Efficiency, and Mass Balance 45 2.2 Electrode Potentials and Electrode Electrolyte Interfaces 48 2.3 Electrode Kinetics (Charger Transfer (Butler Volmer Equation) and Mass Transfer (Diffusion Laws)) 53 2.4 Porous Electrode Theory (Kinetic and Diffusion) 55 2.5 Structure, Design, and Fabrication of Electrochemical Devices 58 2.6 Nanomaterials in Electrochemical Applications 64 References 67 3 Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries 69 Dingguo Xia 3.1 Introduction 69 3.2 Main Types and Structures of Li Ion Rechargeable Batteries 70 3.3 Electrochemical Processes in Li Ion Rechargeable Batteries 72 3.4 Battery Components (Anode, Cathode, Separator, Endplates, and Current Collector) 73 3.5 Assembly, Stacking, and Manufacturing of Li Ion Rechargeable Batteries 84 3.6 Li Ion Battery Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 88 3.7 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 96 3.8 Current and Potential Applications of Secondary Li Ion Batteries 101 References 107 4 Lead-Acid Battery 111 Joey Jung 4.1 General Characteristics and Chemical/Electrochemical Processes in a Lead-Acid Battery 111 4.2 Battery Components (Anode, Cathode, Separator, Endplates (Current Collector), and Sealing) 115 4.3 Main Types and Structures of Lead-Acid Batteries 128 4.4 Charging Lead-Acid Battery 146 4.5 Maintenance and Failure Mode of a Lead-Acid Battery 151 4.6 Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Technology 154 4.7 Lead-Acid Battery Market 169 References 173 Further Reading 174 5 Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) Rechargeable Batteries 175 Hua Ma, Fangyi Cheng, and Jun Chen 5.1 Introduction to NiMH Rechargeable Batteries 175 5.2 Electrochemical Processes in Rechargeable Ni-MH Batteries 177 5.3 Battery Components 180 5.4 Assembly, Stacking, Configuration, and Manufacturing of Rechargeable Ni-MH Batteries 206 5.5 Ni-MH Battery Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 219 5.6 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 221 5.7 Applications (Portable, Backup Power, and Transportation) 224 5.8 Challenges and Perspectives of Ni-MH Rechargeable Batteries 231 References 232 6 Metal Air Technology 239 Bruce W. Downing 6.1 Metal Air Technology 239 6.2 Introduction to Aluminum Air Technology 242 6.3 Introduction to Lithium Air Technology 246 6.4 Introduction to Zinc Air Technology 249 6.5 Introduction to Magnesium Air Technology 252 6.6 Structure of Magnesium Air Cell 255 6.7 Electrochemical Processes 255 6.8 Components 258 6.9 Manufacturing 263 6.10 Magnesium Air Battery Performance 267 6.11 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 269 6.12 Applications 273 6.13 Challenges and Perspectives of Magnesium Air Cells 274 References 275 7 Liquid Redox Rechargeable Batteries 279 Huamin Zhang 7.1 Introduction 279 7.2 Electrochemical Processes in a Redox Flow Battery 284 7.3 Materials and Properties of Redox Flow Battery 288 7.4 Redox Flow Battery System 295 7.5 Performance Evaluation of Redox Flow Battery 298 7.6 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 305 7.7 Applications of Redox Flow Batteries 309 7.8 Perspectives and Challenges of RFB 313 References 314 8 Electrochemical Supercapacitors 317 Aiping Yu, Aaron Davies, and Zhongwei Chen 8.1 Introduction to Supercapacitors (Current Technology State and Literature Review) 317 8.2 Main Types and Structures of Supercapacitors 322 8.3 Physical/Electrochemical Processes in Supercapacitors 325 8.4 Supercapacitor Components 338 8.5 Assembly and Manufacturing of Supercapacitors 357 8.6 Supercapacitors Stacking and Systems 359 8.7 Supercapacitor Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 362 8.8 Supercapacitor Configurations 369 8.9 Applications 371 8.10 Challenges and Perspectives of Electrochemical Supercapacitors 375 References 376 Contents to Volume 2 Contents to Volume 1 XIII Preface XV About the Editors XVII List of Contributors XIX 9 Water Electrolysis for Hydrogen Generation 383 Pierre Millet 9.1 Introduction to Water Electrolysis 383 9.2 Thermodynamics 385 9.3 Kinetics 393 9.4 Alkaline Water Electrolysis 401 9.5 PEM Water Electrolysis 406 9.6 High Temperature Water Electrolysis 415 9.7 Conclusion 420 List of Symbols and Abbreviations 421 References 422 10 Hydrogen Compression, Purification, and Storage 425 Pierre Millet 10.1 Introduction 425 10.2 Pressurized Water Electrolysis 425 10.3 Hydrogen Electrochemical Compression 438 10.4 Hydrogen Electrochemical Extraction and Purification 447 10.5 Hydrogen Storage in Hydride-Forming Materials 450 10.6 Conclusion and Perspectives 460 List of Symbols and Abbreviations 460 References 461 11 Solar Cell as an EnergyHarvesting Device 463 Aung Ko Ko Kyaw, Ming Fei Yang, and Xiao Wei Sun 11.1 Introduction 463 11.2 Solar Radiation and Absorption 463 11.3 Fundamentals of Solar Cells 465 11.4 Silicon Solar Cell 470 11.5 Other High-Efficiency Solar Cells 479 11.6 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell 489 11.7 Routes to Boost the Efficiency of Solar Cells 523 11.8 Current Ideas for Future Solar Cell 526 11.9 Summary 528 References 529 12 Photoelectrochemical Cells for Hydrogen Generation 541 Neelu Chouhan, ChihKai Chen, Wen-Sheng Chang, Kong-Wei Cheng, and Ru-Shi Liu 12.1 Introduction 541 12.2 Main Types and Structures of Photoelectrochemical Cells 544 12.3 Electrochemical Processes in Photoelectrochemical Cells 550 12.4 Photoelectrochemical Cell Components 553 12.5 Assembly of Photoelectrochemical Cells 566 12.6 Photoelectrochemical Cell Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 572 12.7 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 581 12.8 Applications (Portable, Stationary, and Transportation) 586 12.9 Conclusions 589 Acknowledgments 590 References 590 13 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 601 Stefania Specchia, Carlotta Francia, and Paolo Spinelli 13.1 Introduction to PEMFCs 601 13.2 Main Types and Structures of PEMFCs 603 13.3 Electrochemical Processes in PEMFCs 608 13.4 PEMFCs Components 618 13.5 Assembly and Manufacture of PEMFCs 623 13.6 PEMFC Stacking and System 627 13.7 PEM Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 629 13.8 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 635 13.9 Applications 645 13.10 Challenges and Perspectives 648 References 651 14 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 671 Jeffrey W. Fergus 14.1 Introduction 671 14.2 Fuel Cell Components 678 14.3 Assembly and Manufacturing 684 14.4 Stacking and Balance of the Plant 685 14.5 Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 688 14.6 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 689 14.7 Applications 690 14.8 Challenges and Perspectives 694 Acknowledgments 694 References 694 15 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 701 Kan-Lin Hsueh, Li-Duan Tsai, Chiou-Chu Lai, and Yu-Min Peng 15.1 Introduction to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 701 15.2 Main Types and Structures of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 703 15.3 Electrochemical Processes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 705 15.4 Fuel Cell Components 709 15.5 Assembly and Manufacturing of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 712 15.6 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stacking and Systems 714 15.7 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Performance, Testing, and Diagnosis 718 15.8 Degradation Mechanisms and Mitigation Strategies 720 15.9 Applications 721 15.10 Challenges and Perspectives of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 724 References 725 16 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 729 Xin-Jian Zhu and Bo Huang 16.1 Introduction to Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 729 16.2 Current Technologic Status of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 730 16.3 Electrochemical Processes in Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 733 16.4 Components of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 734 16.5 Structure and Performance of MCFCs 744 16.6 Schematic of MCFC Power Generation Systems 750 16.7 Fabrication and Operation of MCFCs 752 16.8 MCFC Power Plant 754 16.9 Major Factors Affecting the Performance and Lifetime of MCFCs 757 16.10 Challenges and Perspectives of MCFCs 767 References 770 Index 777

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527328697
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 838
  • ID: 9783527328697
  • weight: 1856
  • ISBN10: 3527328696

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