This text provides a streamlined and accessible introduction to statistics for students in sociology, criminal justice, political science, social work, and other social sciences.This edition of the text offers an essential and accessible overview to the introduction to social statistics. Clearly written with detailed step-by-step illustrations of statistical procedures, the text provides clear and logical explanations for the rationale and use of statistical methods of social research. Numerous end-of-chapter questions in every chapter reinforce key concepts to students.
IN THIS SECTION1.) BRIEF2.) COMPREHENSIVEBRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics Part I DescriptionChapter 2 Organizing the Data Chapter 3 Measures of Central TendencyChapter 4 Measures of VariabilityPart II From Description to Decision Making Chapter 5 Probability and the Normal Curve Chapter 6 Samples and Populations Part III Decision Making Chapter 7 Testing Differences Between Means Chapter 8 Analysis of Variance Chapter 9 Nonparametric Tests of SignificancePart IV From Decision Making to Association Chapter 10 CorrelationChapter 11 Regression AnalysisChapter 12 Nonparametric Measures of Correlation COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter 1 Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics The Nature of Social ResearchWhy Test Hypotheses? The Stages of Social Research Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research The Functions of StatisticsLooking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey Part I Description Chapter 2 Organizing the DataFrequency Distributions of Nominal DataComparing Distributions Proportions and Percentages Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data Cumulative Distributions Dealing with Decimal Data Flexible Class Intervals Cross-Tabulations Graphic Presentations Chapter 3 Measures of Central TendencyThe ModeThe Median The Mean Taking One Step at a Time Step-by-Step Illustration: Mode, Median and Mean Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean Chapter 4 Measures of VariabilityThe RangeThe Variance and Standard DeviationStep-by-Step Illustration: Standard deviation The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard DeviationStep-by-Step Illustration: Variance and Standard Deviation Using Raw Scores The Meaning of the Standard Deviation Comparing Measures of VariabilityLooking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data Part II From Description to Decision Making Chapter 5 Probability and the Normal CurveProbabilityProbability Distributions The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution Characteristics of the Normal Curve The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve The Area Under the Normal Curve Finding Probability Under the Normal CurveStep-by-Step Illustration: Probability under the Normal Curve Chapter 6 Samples and PopulationsRandom Sampling Sampling Error Sampling Distribution of Means Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Intervals The t DistributionStep-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Interval Using t Estimating ProportionsStep-by-Step Illustration: Confidence Intervals for ProportionsLooking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing From Samples to Populations Part III Decision Making Chapter 7 Testing Differences Between MeansThe Null Hypothesis: No Difference Between MeansThe Research Hypothesis: A Difference Between Means Sampling Distribution of Differences Between Means Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences Between Means Levels of Significance Standard Error of the Difference Between Means Testing the Difference Between MeansStep-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference Between Means Comparing the Same Sample Measured TwiceStep-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference between Means for Same Sample Measured Twice Two Sample Tests of ProportionsStep-by-Step Illustration: Test of Difference Between Proportions Requirements for Testing the Difference Between Means Chapter 8 Analysis of Variance.The Logic of Analysis of VarianceThe Sum of Squares Mean Square The F RatioStep-by-Step Illustration: Analysis of Variance Requirements for Using the F Ratio Chapter 9 Nonparametric Tests of SignificanceThe Chi-Square TestStep-by-Step Illustration: Chi-Square Test of SignificancStep-by-Step Illustration: Comparin Several groupsThe Median TestStep-by-Step Illustration: Median TestLooking at the Larger Picture: Testing Differences Part IV From Decision Making to Association Chapter 10 CorrelationStrength of CorrelationDirection of CorrelationCurvilinear Correlation The Correlation Coefficient Pearson's Correlation CoefficientStep-by-Step Illustration: Pearson's Correlation CoefficientChapter 11 Regression AnalysisThe Regression Model Interpreting the Regression Line Regression and Pearson's CorrelationStep-by-Step Illustration: Step-by-Step Illustration: Regression Analysis Chapter 12 Nonparametric Measures of CorrelationSpearman's Rank-Order Correlation CoefficientStep-by-Step Illustration: Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation CoefficientGoodman's and Kruskal's GammaStep-by-Step Illustration: Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 x 2 Table Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger Than 2 x 2 TablesLooking at the Larger Picture: Measuring Association Appendix A. A Review of Some Fundamentals of MathematicsAppendix B. TablesAppendix C. List of FormulasGlossaryAnswers to Selected ProblemsIndex