Increasingly the Middle East and its growing population face a highly complex and fragile security system. The rich deposits of natural resources, such as oil and gas, suffer from a strained renewable resource base that includes water and arable land. This leads to water scarcity, desertification, and land degradation. Increasing population, industrialization, and urbanization put more and more demand on the food supply. Energy insecurity may not be generally associated with the Middle East, but the countries in the eastern Mediterranean part have been traditionally vulnerable to it as their fossil fuel endowments have been low. Another issue is the large-scale temporary labor migration and the large number of forced migrants, refugees, and internally displaced persons. The book analyzes these emerging security challenges in a comprehensive and systematic manner. It draws national and regional security issues into both the global security and human security perspectives.
Ashok Swain is a professor in the Department of Peace and Conflict Research and the Department of Earth Sciences at Uppsala University, Sweden. Anders Jagerskog is Counselor for Regional Water issues in the MENA region at the Embassy of Sweden in Amman, Jordan.
Chapter 1: Introduction: Middle East and Its New Sources of Insecurity Understanding Security in the Middle East Study of Security in the Middle East The Middle East Region International Actors and Regional Security in the Middle East The Rise and Fall of the `Arab Spring' and the Rise of the ISIS Future Security Threats: Emerging Scenarios Chapter 2: Achieving Food Security: A Critical Challenge Increasing Food demand in the Region Import and Export of Water from the Region Land Investments as a Strategy to Address Food Security Climate Change, Water Availability and Food Production Concluding Thoughts Chapter 3: Water Scarcity: Threat to Peace and Stability Water Scarcity and Water Governance in the Middle East Supply versus Demand Side Solutions High Degree of Shared Water Resources New Trends in the Region - The Use of Water as a Weapon Connecting to Security Architecture Chapter 4. Energy Security and its Changing Dynamics in the Middle East Exporters of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Importers of Crude Oil and Natural Gas New Challenges and New Discoveries Moving out of Oil and Gas Trap Relying on Renewables Evaluating Region's Energy Security Scenario Chapter 5: Managing Large Population Migration Importance of Remittances and Challenges of Foreign Workers The Middle East: The Region of and for Refugees Migrants in the Middle East: More as Peace Wreckers than Peace Makers Chapter 6: Conclusion - In Search of Sustainable Regional Security Four Fault Lines in Regional Security Structure Identifying Immediate Security Risks Region to Regain the Initiative