Empires of the Sand offers a bold and comprehensive reinterpretation of the struggle for mastery in the Middle East during the long nineteenth century. Backed by a wealth of archival sources, the authors refute the standard belief that Europe was responsible for the destruction of the Ottoman Empire and the region's political unity. Instead, they argue that the main impetus for the developments of this momentous period came from the local actors. Efraim Karsh and Inari Karsh see not a "clash of civilizations" but a pattern of pragmatic cooperation and conflict between the Middle East and the West during the past two centuries. Such a vision affords daringly new ways of viewing the Middle East's past as well as its volatile present.
Efraim Karsh is Professor and Director of the Mediterranean Studies Program at King's College, London. Inari Karsh is a scholar of Middle East history and politics.
Introduction Part One Imperial Sunset 1. Riding the Napoleonic Storms 2. The Greek Tinderbox 3. Muhammad Ali's Imperial Dream 4. Losing Egypt 5. Out of Europe 6. The Young Turks in Power Part Two Demise of the "Sick Man" 7. The Ottoman Road to War 8. The Entente's Road to War 9. The Lust for Glory 10. Genocide in Armenia 11. Repression in the Holy Land 12. Istanbul and the Arabs 13. The "Great Arab Revolt" 14. Hussein's Imperial Bid 15. Dividing the Bear's Skin Part Three: Unite and Rule 16. The Balfour Declaration 17. The Undoing of the Sykes-Picot Agreement 18. Losing Syria 19. A K ngdom for Faisal 20. And One for Abdullah 21. From Empire to Nation Epilogue Abbreviations Notes Index