A resource for students or general readers who want to know more about the major ideas, philosophies and concepts, both past and present, that have influenced and shaped civilization. With particular emphasis on the 20th century, the encyclopaedia contains over 400 fully cross-referenced entries that provide a survey of topics that have been crucial to the history of mankind, including the rise and fall of communism, the advent of feminism, and the advancement of democracy. Key concepts and controversial issues are clearly defined and analyzed, with examples from current events used to enhance readers' understanding of the ideas presented. Ideologies are not only considered within their historical context but are also related to contemporary politics. A chronology provides a linear presentation of the evolution of political thinking.