Written by renowned experts in the field, this first book to focus exclusively on energy balance climate models provides a concise overview of the topic. It covers all major aspects, from the simplest zero-dimensional models, proceeding to horizontally and vertically resolved models. The text begins with global average models, which are explored in terms of their elementary forms yielding the global average temperature, right up to the incorporation of feedback mechanisms and some analytical properties of interest. The effect of stochastic forcing is then used to introduce natural variability in the models before turning to the concept of stability theory. Other one dimensional or zonally averaged models are subsequently presented, along with various applications, including chapters on paleoclimatology, the inception of continental glaciations, detection of signals in the climate system, and optimal estimation of large scale quantities from point scale data.
Throughout the book, the authors work on two mathematical levels: qualitative physical expositions of the subject material plus optional mathematical sections that include derivations and treatments of the equations along with some proofs of stability theorems. A must-have introduction for policy makers, environmental agencies, and NGOs, as well as climatologists, molecular physicists, and meteorologists.
Gerald R. North is University Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Sciences Emeritus at Texas A&M University, having obtained his BS degree in physics from the University of Tennessee, PhD (1966) in theoretical physics from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Among other positions he served eight years as research scientist at Goddard Space Flight Center before joining Texas A&M in 1986, where he served as department head 1995-2003. He is a fellow of AAAS, AGU, AMS, and recipient of several awards including the Jule G. Charney Award of the American Meteorology Society. He has served as Editor in Chief of the Reviews of Geophysics and Editor in Chief of the Encyclopedia of the Atmospheric Sciences, 2nd Edition. He has coauthored books on Paleoclimatology and Atmospheric Thermodynamics. Kwang-Yul Kim is a professor in climatology and physical oceanography at Seoul National University. Upon graduation from Texas A&M with his Ph.D. degree in physical oceanography he was inducted into the Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society. He authored two books: Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics and Cyclostationary EOF Analysis. He programmed several new energy balance models.
Preface CLIMATE AND CLIMATE MODELS Defining Climate Elementary Climate System Anatomy Radiation and Climate Hiercharchy of Climate Models Greenhouse Effect and Modern Climate Change Reading this Book Cautionary Note and Disclaimer Notes on Further Reading GLOBAL AVERAGE MODELS Temperature and Heat Balance Time Dependence Spectral Analysis Nonlinear Global Model Summary RADIATION AND VERTICAL STRUCTURE Radiance and Radiation Flux Density Equation of Transfer Gray Atmosphere Plane Parallel Atmosphere Radiative Equilibrium Simplified Model for Water Vapor Absorber Cooling Rates Solutions for Uniform-Slab Absorbers Vertical Heat Conduction Convective Adjustment Models Lessons from Simple Radiation Models Criticism of the Gray Spectrum Aerosol Particles GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND CLIMATE FEEDBACKS Greenhouse Effect without Feedbacks Infrared Spectra of Outgoing Radiation Summary of Assumptions and Simplifications Log Dependence of the CO2 Forcing Runaway Greenhouse Effect Climate Feedbacks and Climate Sensitivity Water Vapor Feedback Ice Feedback for the Global Model Probability Density of Climate Sensitivity Middle Atmosphere Temperature Profile Conclusion Notes for Further Reading LATITUDE DEPENDENCE Spherical Coordinates Incoming Solar Radiation Extreme Heat Transport Cases Heat Transport Across Latitude Circles Diffusive Heat Transport Deriving the Legendre Polynomials Solution of the Linear Model with Constant Coefficients The Two-Mode Approximation Poleward Transport of Heat Budyko's Transport Model Ring Heat Source Advanced Topic: Formal Solution for More General Transports Ice Feedback in the 2-Mode Model Polar Amplification through Icecap Feedback Chapter Summary TIME DEPENDENCE IN THE 1-D MODEL Differential Equation for Time Dependence Decay of Anomalies Seasonal Cycle on a Homogeneous Planet Spread of Diffused Heat Random Winds and Diffusion Numerical Methods Spectral Methods Chapter Summary Appendix: Solar Heating Distribution NONLINEAR PHENOMENA IN EBMS Formulation of the Nonlinear Feedback Model Sturm-Liouville Modes Linear Stability Analysis Finite Perturbation Analysis and Potential Function Small Ice Cap Instability Snow Caps and the Seasonal Cycle Mengel's Land Cap Model Chapter Summary TWO HORIZONTAL DIMENSIONS AND SEASONALITY Beach Ball Seasonal Cycle Eigenfunctions in the Bounded Plane Eigenfunctions on the Sphere Spherical Harmonics Solutions of the EBM with Constant Coefficients Introducing Geography Global Sinusoidal Forcing Two Dimensional Linear Seasonal Model Present Seasonal Cycle Comparison Chapter Summary PERTURBATION BY NOISE Time-Independent Case for Uniform Planet Time-Dependent Noise Forcing for Uniform Planet Green's Function on the Sphere: f=0 Apportionment of Variance at a Point Stochastic Model with Realistic Geography Thermal Decay Modes with Geography TIME-DEPENDENT RESPONSE AND THE OCEAN Single-Slab Ocean Penetration of a Periodic Heating at the Surface Two-Slab Ocean Box-Diffusion Ocean Model Steady State of Upwelling-Diffusion Ocean Upwelling Diffusion with (and without) Geography Influence of Initial Conditions Response to Periodic Forcing with Upwelling Diffusion Ocean Summary and Conclusions APPLICATIONS OF EBSM: OPTIMAL ESTIMATION Introduction Independet Estimators Estimating Global Average Temperature Deterministic Signals in the Climate System APPLICATIONS OF EBMS: PALEOCLIMATE Paleoclimatology Precambrian Earth Glaciations in the Permian Glacial Inception on Antarctica Clacial Inception on Greenland Pleistocene Glaciations and Milankovic