Environmental and Pollution Science, Second Edition, provides the latest information on the environmental influence of a significant number of subjects, and discusses their impact on a new generation of students.
This updated edition of Pollution Science has been renamed to reflect a wider view of the environmental consequences we pay as a price for a modern economy. The authors have compiled the latest information to help students assess environmental quality using a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem.
The book covers key topics such as the fate and transport of contaminants, monitoring and remediation of pollution, sources and characteristics of pollution, and risk assessment and management. It contains more than 400 color photographs and diagrams, numerous questions and problems, case studies, and highlighted keywords.
This book is ideally suited for professionals and students studying the environment, especially as it relates to pollution as well as government workers and conservationists/ecologists.
Dr. Ian Pepper is currently a Professor at the University of Arizona. He is also Director of the University of Arizona, Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL) and the NSF Water and Environmental Technology (WET) Center. Dr. Pepper is an environmental microbiologist specializing in the molecular ecology of the environment. His research has focused on the fate and transport of pathogens in air, water, soils and wastes. His expertise has been recognized by membership on six National Academy of Science Committees and former memberships on an EPA FIFRA Science and Advisory Panel. Dr. Pepper is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Academy of Microbiology, the Soil Science Society of America, and the American Society of Agronomy. He is also a Board Certified Environmental Scientist within the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists. He is the author or co-author of six textbooks; 40 book chapters; and over 180 peer-review journal articles. Dr. Charles P. Gerba is a Professor at the University of Arizona. He conducts research the transmission of pathogens through the environment. His recent research encompasses the transmission of pathogens by water, food and fomites; fate of pathogens in land applied wastes; development of new disinfectants; domestic microbiology and microbial risk assessment. He has been an author on more than 500 articles including several books in environmental microbiology and pollution science. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1998 he received the A. P. Black Award from the American Water Works Association for outstanding contributions to water science and in 1996 he received the McKee medal from the Water Environment Federation for outstanding contributions to groundwater protection. He received the 1999 Award of Excellence in Environmental Health from National Association of County and City Health Officials.
Table of Contents Preface The Editors Contributing Authors The Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science (SWES) Part 1 Processes Affecting Fate and Transport of Contaminants Chapter 1 The Extent of Global Pollution 1.1 Science and Pollution 1.2 Global Perspective of the Environment 1.3 Pollution and Population Pressures 1.4 Overview of Environmental Characterization 1.5 Advances in Analytical Detection Technology 1.6 The Risk Based Approach to Pollution Science 1.7 Waste Management, Site Remediation, and Ecosystem Restoration References and Additional Reading Chapter 2 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Soils and the Subsurface 2.1 Soil and Subsurface Environments 2.2 Solid Phase 2.3 Gaseous Phase 2.4 Liquid Phase 2.5 Basic Physical Properties Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 3 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Waters 3.1 The Watery Planet 3.2 Unique Properties of Water 3.3 Mechanical Properties 3.4 The Universal Solvent 3.5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 3.6 Light in Aquatic Environments 3.7 Oceans 3.8 Lakes and Reservoirs-The Lentic System 3.9 Streams and Rivers-The Lotic System 3.10 Groundwater-Water in the Subsurface 3.11 A Watershed Approach Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 4 Physical-Chemical Characteristics of the Atmosphere 4.1 Chemical Composition 4.2 Physical Properties and Structure Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 5 Biotic Characteristics of the Environment 5.1 Major Groups of Organisms 5.2 Microorganisms in Surface Soils 5.3 Microorganisms in the Subsurface 5.4 Biological Generation of Energy 5.5 Soil as an Environment for Microbes 5.6 Activity and Physiological State of Microbes in Soil 5.7 Enumeration of Soil Bacteria via Dilution and Plating 5.8 Microorganisms in Air 5.9 Microorganisms in Surface Water References and Additional Reading Chapter 6 Physical Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate 6.1 Contaminant Transport and Fate in the Environment 6.2 Contaminant Properties 6.3 Advection 6.4 Dispersion 6.5 Mass Transfer 6.6 Transformation Reactions 6.7 Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Contaminants 6.8 Estimating Phase Distributions of Contaminants 6.9 Quantifying Contaminant Transport and Fate Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 7 Chemical Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Basic Properties of Inorganic Contaminants 7.3 Basic Properties of Organic Contaminants 7.4 Sorption Processes 7.5 Abiotic Transformation Reactions Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 8 Biological Processes Affecting Contaminant Transport and Fate 8.1 Biological Effects on Pollutants 8.2 The Overall Process of Biodegradation 8.3 Microbial Activity and Biodegradation 8.4 Biodegradation Pathways 8.5 Transformation of Metal Pollutants Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Part 2 Monitoring, Assessment, and Regulation of Environmental Pollution Chapter 9 Physical Contaminants 9.1 Particle Origins 9.2 Particle Size 9.3 Particles in Air or Aerosols 9.4 Particulates in Water 9.5 Summary Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 10 Chemical Contaminants 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Types of Contaminants 10.3 Sources: Agricultural Activities 10.4 Sources: Industrial and Manufacturing Activities 10.5 Sources: Municipal Waste 10.6 Sources: Service-Related Activities 10.7 Sources: Resource Extraction/Production 10.8 Sources: Radioactive Contaminants 10.9 Natural Sources of Contaminants Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 11 Microbial Contaminants 11.1 Water-Related Microbial Disease 11.2 Classes of Diseases and Types of Pathogens 11.3 Types of Pathogenic Organisms 11.4 Sources of Pathogens in the Environment 11.5 Fate and Transport of Pathogens in the Environment 11.6 Standards and Criteria for Indicators Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 12 The Role of Environmental Monitoring in Pollution Science 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Sampling and Monitoring Basics 12.3 Statistics and Geostatistics 12.4 Sampling and Monitoring Tools 12.5 Soil and Vadose Zone Sampling and Monitoring 12.6 Groundwater Sampling and Monitoring 12.7 Surface Water Sampling and Monitoring 12.8 Atmosphere Sampling and Monitoring 12.9 Conclusions Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 13 Environmental Toxicology 13.1 History of Modern Toxicity in the United States 13.2 Toxic Versus Nontoxic 13.3 Exposure and Dose 13.4 Evaluation of Toxicity 13.5 Responses to Toxic Substances 13.6 Carcinogens 13.7 Mutagens 13.8 Teratogens 13.9 Chemical Toxicity: General Considerations 13.10 Chemical Toxicity: Selected Substances Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 14 Risk Assessment 14.1 The Concept of Risk Assessment 14.2 The Process of Risk Assessment 14.3 Ecological Risk Assessment 14.4 Microbial Risk Assessment Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 15 Environmental Laws and Regulations 15.1 Regulatory Overview 15.2 The Safe Drinking Water Act 15.3 The Clean Water Act 15.4 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act 15.5 Federal Insecticide and Rodenticide Act 15.6 Clean Air Act 15.7 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 15.8 The Pollution Prevention Act 15.9 Other Regulatory Agencies and Accords Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Part 3 Land and Water Pollution Mitigation Chapter 16 Soil and Land Pollution 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Surface Mining 16.2.1 Mine Tailings 16.2.2 Air Emissions 16.3 Deforestation 16.4 Soil Acidity-Salinity 16.5 Soil Erosion 16.6 Agricultural Activities 16.7 Animal Wastes 16.8 Industrial Wastes With High Salts and Organics 16.9 Invasive Species Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 17 Subsurface Pollution 17.1 Groundwater as a Resource 17.2 Groundwater Pollution 17.3 Groundwater Pollution Risk Assessment 17.4 Point-Source Contamination 17.4.1 Hazardous Organic Chemicals 17.5 Diffuse-Source Contamination 17.6 Other Groundwater Contamination Problems 17.7 Sustainability of Groundwater Resources Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 18 Surface Water Pollution 18.1 Surface Freshwater Resources 18.2 Marine Water Resources 18.3 Sources of Surface Water Pollution 18.4 Sediments as Surface Water Contaminants 18.6 Nutrients and Eutrophication of Surface Waters 18.7 Organic Compounds in Water 18.8 Enteric Pathogens as Surface Water Contaminants 18.9 Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) 18.10 Quantification of Surface Water Pollution 18.11 Determining BOD 18.12 Dilution of Effluents 18.13 Dye Tracing of Plumes 18.14 Spatial and Temporal Variation of Plume Concentrations 18.15 Compliance Monitoring Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 19 Soil and Groundwater Remediation 19.1 Introduction 19.2 Superfund Process 19.3 Site Characterization 19.4 Remediation Technologies Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 20 Ecosystem Restoration and Land Reclamation 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Site Characterization 20.3 Site Restoration 20.4 Site Monitoring 20.5 Approaches to Ecosystem Restoration 20.6 Land Reclamation Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Part 4 Atmospheric Pollution Chapter 21 Sensory Pollutants, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiofrequency Radiation 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Heat 21.3 Light 21.4 Noise Pollution 21.5 Odor as a Sensory Pollutant 21.6 Electromagnetic Fields and Radiofrequency Radiation Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 22 Indoor Air Quality 22.1 Fundamentals of Indoor Air Quality 22.2 Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants 22.3 Factors Influencing Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution 22.4 Monitoring IAQ Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 23 Atmospheric Pollution 23.1 Air Pollution Concepts 23.2 Sources, Types, and Effects of Air Pollution 23.3 Weather and Pollutants 23.4 Pollution Trends in the United States Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 24 Global Change 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect 24.3 Other Global Changes 24.4 Solutions to the Problems of Global Environmental Change Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Part 5 Waste and Water Treatment and Management Chapter 25 Industrial and Municipal Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Relevant Regulations for Industrial and Municipal Solid Wastes 25.3 Major Forms of Industrial Wastes 25.4 Treatment and Disposal of Industrial Wastes 25.5 Reuse of Industrial Wastes 25.6 Treatment and Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste 25.7 Pollution Prevention Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 26 Municipal Wastewater Treatment 26.1 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage) 26.2 Modern Wastewater Treatment 26.3 Oxidation Ponds 26.4 Septic Tanks 26.5 Land Application of Wastewater 26.6 Wetlands and Aquaculture Systems 26.7 Sludge Processing Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 27 Land Application of Biosolids and Animal Wastes 27.1 Biosolids and Animal Wastes: A Historical Perspective and Current Outlook 27.2 The Nature of Wastewater (Sewage) 27.3 Wastewater (Sewage) Treatment 27.4 Methods of Land Application of Biosolids 27.5 Benefits of Land Application of Biosolids 27.6 Hazards of Land Application of Biosolids 27.7 Sources of Animal Wastes 27.8 Nonpoint Versus Point Source Pollution 27.9 Benefits of Land Application of Animal Wastes 27.10 Hazards of Land Application of Animal Wastes 27.11 Public Perceptions of Land Application Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 28 Drinking Water Treatment and Water Security 28.1 Water Treatment Processes 28.2 Disinfection 28.3 Factors Affecting Disinfectants 28.4 Halogens 28.5 Disinfection By-Products 28.6 Residential Water Treatment 28.7 Water Security 28.8 Monitoring Community Water Quality Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Part 6 Emerging Issues in Pollution Science Chapter 29 Genetically Engineered Crops and Microbes 29.1 Introduction to Nucleic Acids 29.2 Recombinant DNA Technology 29.3 Transfer of Nucleic Acid Sequences from One Organism to Another (Cloning) 29.4 Chemical Synthesis, Sequencing and Amplification of DNA 29.5 Heterologous Gene Expression in Pro- and Eukaryotes 29.6 Genetically Engineered Plants for Agriculture 29.7 Genetically Engineered Plants for Remediation 29.8 Microbial-Assisted Remediation 29.9 Potential Problems Due to Genetically Modified Organisms 29.10 Summary Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 30 Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Gene Transfer 30.1 Why Are Antibiotics An Issue? 30.2 Classification and Function of Antibiotics 30.3 Development of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance 30.4 Transfer of Genetic Material by Horizontal Gene Transfer 30.5 Prevalent Environments Favoring HGT 30.6 Isolation and Detection of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria 30.7 Incidence of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Various Environments 30.8 Gene Transfer Between Bacteria-How Prelevants It? 30.9 Summary and Conclusions Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 31 Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors 31.1 Endocrine Disruptors and Hormones 31.2 Significance of EDCs in Water 31.3 Incidence of EDCs in Water 31.4 Fate and Transport of Estrogenic Compounds in Municipal Wastewater 31.5 Methods for Measuring Estrogenic Activity in Water 31.6 What are the Risk of EDCs? Questions and Problems References and Additional Reading Chapter 32 Epilogue: Is the Future of Pollution History? 32.1 The Role of Government in Controlling Pollution 32.2 Research Priorities Necessary to Protect Human Health 32.3 Pollution Prevention of Earth, Air, and Water 32.4 Is the Future of Pollution History? References and Additional Reading Index