This Second Edition of Environmental Impact Assessment Methodologies covers basic concepts and important methodologies. It details the prediction and assessment of impacts on soil and groundwater management, surface water management, biological environment, air environment, the impact of noise on the environment, and of socio-economic and human health impacts. This new edition contains an additional chapter on environmental risk assessment and risk management, a chapter on the application of remote sensing and GIS in EIA and a chapter with EIA case studies. Written clearly and concisely, it presents the fundamentals of EIA and how to apply these in practice. This volume is intended for a global audience of advanced students and practitioners in environmental management and planning.
Dr Y. Anjaneyulu is presently a Visiting Professor at the Environment and Chemistry Department and the TLGVRC Director at Jackson State University, Mississippi, USA. Educated as an Environmental Chemist, he has worked as a professor and director at the Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad. He has a broad and deep knowledge of the subject and is also the author of the book, Introduction to Environmental Sciences (BS Publications). Dr Valli Manickam, PhD is presently working as a lecturer at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad. She has gained a wide experience in Environmental Impact Assessment, both by her research and by her teaching assignments.
Chapter 1 Fundamental Approach to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) 1.A Basic Concept of EIA 1.A.1 Introduction 1.A.2 EIA Procedure 1.B Systematic Approach for Using EIA as a Planning Tool for Major Project Activities 1.B.1 Introduction 1.B.2 Preparation of Environmental Base Map 1.B.3 Identification of Study Area 1.B.4 Classification of Environmental Parameters 1.B.5 Formation of EIA Study Team 1.B.6 Preparation of Terms of Reference 1.B.7 Preparation of an EIA Report 1.B.8 Environmental Monitoring and management Plan 1.B.9 Draft and Final Envionmental Impact Statements 1.B.10 Impact Analysis 1.B.11 Format and Content of a Draft Environmental Impact Statements (DEIS) 1.B.12 DEIS Processing 1.B.13 Final Environmental Impact Statements (FEIS) 1.C Comparative Evaluation Alternatives from EIA Studies 1.C.1 Selecting a Preferred Alternative 1.C.2 Conceptual Basis for Trade-Off Analysis 1.C.3 Importance Weighting of Decision Factors References Questions Chapter 2 EIA Methodologies 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Criteria for the Selection of EIA Methodology 2.3 EIA Methods 2.4 Predictive Models for Impact Assessment References Questions Chapter 3 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on Soil and Ground Water Environment 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Soils and Ground water 3.3 Methodology for the Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on Soil and Groundwater References Questions Chapter 4 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on Surface Water Environment 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Project Which Create Impact Concerns for the Surface-water Environment 4.3 Systematic Methods for Evaluation of Impacts of Various Developmental Activities on Surface Water Environment References Questions Chapter 5 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on Biological Environment 5.1 Introduction 5.2 General Methodology for the Assessment of Impacts on Biological Environment 5.3 Systematic Approach for Evaluating Biological Impacts 5.4 Typical Examples for Carrying out EIA 5.5 Typical Example Assessment of Impacts of Road Development on Flora and Fauna References Questions Chapter 6 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Air Environment 6.1 Introduction 6.2 A Generalized Approach for Assessment of Air Pollution Impact References Questions Chapter 7 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts of Noise on the Environment 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Basic Information of Noise 7.3 Noise Measurement 7.4 Effects of Noise of People 7.5 Systematic Methodology for Assessing Environmental Impacts of Noise References Questions Chapter 8 Prediction and Assessment of Impacts of Socio-Economic and Human Health Impacts 8.A Prediction and Assessment of Impacts on the Socio-Economic Environment 8.A.1 Introduction 8.A.2 Social Assessment 8.A.3 Conceptual Frame Work for Socio Economic Assessment 8.B Prediction and Assessment of Impacts of Project Activities on Human Health 8.B.1 Tasks of Health Impact Assessment 8.B.2 Methodology 8.C Assessment of Impacts of Project Activities on Traffic and Transportation Systems References Questions Chapter 9 Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) and Risk Management in EIA 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA 9.3 Risk Assessment and Treatment of Uncertainty 9.4 Key Steps in Performing an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) 9.5 Advantages and Limitations of Environmental Risk Assessment References Questions Chapter 10 Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for EIA 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Concepts of Environmental Remote Sensing 10.3 Basic Principles of Remote Sensing 10.3.1 Electromagnetic Energy 10.3.2 Photography and Optical Data 10.4 Airborne Light Detection and Ranging System (LIDAR) 10.5 Thermal Imagery 10.6 Radar 10.7 Satellite Orbits 10.8 Application of Environmental Remote Sensing for EIA 10.8.1 Linear Projects 10.8.2 Coastal Zone Studies 10.8.3 Estuaries 10.8.4 Land Use and Land Cover Studies 10.8.5 Sources of Remote Sensing Applications 10. 9 Application of GIS for EIA 10.9.1 What is a GIS? 10.9.2 GIS Concepts and Techniques 10.10 GIS for Environmental Impact Assessment 10.10.1 Possible Approaches 10.10.2 Resource Implications 10.10.3 GIS in Screening, Scoping and Baseline Studies 10.11 Databases for GIS 10.12 Major Applications of GIS References Questions Chapter 11 EIA Case Studies 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Environmental Impact of Industrial Development 11.2.1 Physical Resources 11.2.2 Ecological Resources 11.2.3 Human use values 11.2.4 Quality-of-life values 11.2.5 Project Siting 11.3 Factors to be considered in Making Assessment Decisions 11.4 Guidelines for Preparations of TORS for Life of Industrial Development Projects for Initial Environmental Examination. 11.5 Management Requirements for the Preparation of EIA for industrial projects 11.6 Preparation of EIA of Land Clearing Projects 11.7 Assessment of Impacts of Traffic and Transportation 11.8 Physiography and Drainage 11.9 Geology and Structure 11.10 Climate 11.11 Soil Series 11.12 Land use/ Land cover 11.13 Preparation of the Secondary Overlays 11.13.1 Slope 11.14 Generation of Final Overlays for Decision Making 11.14.1 Hydrogeomorphology and Groundwater 11.14.2 Land-Irrigability 11.14.3 Composite Erosion Intensity Units/Composite Land Development Sites 11.14.4 Land Capability 11.14.5 Sediment Yield Index 11.15 Treatment Plans 11.15.1 Development Plan for the command Area Index