Environmental Organic Chemistry (3rd Edition)

Environmental Organic Chemistry (3rd Edition)

By: Rene P. Schwarzenbach (author), Dieter M. Imboden (author), Philip M. Gschwend (author)Paperback

Up to 2 WeeksUsually despatched within 2 weeks

£102.60 RRP £114.00  You save £11.40 (10%) With FREE Saver Delivery

Description

Examines in a pedagogical way all pertinent molecular and macroscopic processes that govern the distribution and fate of organic chemicals in the environment and provides simple modeling tools to quantitatively describe these processes and their interplay in a given environmental system * Treats fundamental aspects of chemistry, physics, and mathematical modeling as applied to environmentally relevant problems, and gives a state of the art account of the field * Teaches the reader how to relate the structure of a given chemical to its physical chemical properties and intrinsic reactivities * Provides a holistic and teachable treatment of phase partitioning and transformation processes, as well as a more focused and tailor-made presentation of physical, mathematical, and modeling aspects that apply to environmental situations of concern * Includes a large number of questions and problems allowing teachers to explore the depth of understanding of their students or allowing individuals who use the book for self-study to check their progress * Provides a companion website, which includes solutions for all problems as well as a large compilation of physical constants and compound properties

About Author

Rene P. Schwarzenbach, PhD, is a Professor em. of Environmental Chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. Philip M. Gschwend, PhD, is Full Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Dieter M. Imboden, PhD, is a Professor em. of Environmental Physics in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland.

Contents

Preface xiii About the Companion Website xvii 1 General Topic and Overview 1 1.1 Introduction / 2 1.2 Assessing Organic Chemicals in the Environment / 4 1.3 What is This Book All About? / 7 1.4 Bibliography / 14 PART I Background Knowledge 17 2 Background Knowledge on Organic Chemicals 19 2.1 The Makeup of Organic Compounds / 20 2.2 Intermolecular Forces Between Uncharged Molecules / 37 2.3 Questions and Problems / 40 2.4 Bibliography / 43 3 The Amazing World of Anthropogenic Organic Chemicals 45 3.1 Introduction / 47 3.2 A Lasting Global Problem: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) / 47 3.3 Natural but Nevertheless Problematic: Petroleum Hydrocarbons / 48 3.4 Notorious Air and Groundwater Pollutants: Organic Solvents / 53 3.5 Safety First: Flame Retardants All Around Us / 56 3.6 How to Make Materials "Repellent": Polyfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) / 58 3.7 From Washing Machines to Surface Waters: Complexing Agents, Surfactants, Whitening Agents, and Corrosion Inhibitors / 60 3.8 Health, Well-Being, and Water Pollution: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products / 63 3.9 Fighting Pests: Herbicides, Insecticides, and Fungicides / 65 3.10 Our Companion Compounds: Representative Model Chemicals / 69 3.11 Questions / 72 3.12 Bibliography / 73 4 Background Thermodynamics, Equilibrium Partitioning and Acidity Constants 81 4.1 Important Thermodynamic Functions / 83 4.2 Using Thermodynamic Functions to Quantify Equilibrium Partitioning / 89 4.3 Organic Acids and Bases I: Acidity Constant and Speciation in Natural Waters / 98 4.4 Organic Acids and Bases II: Chemical Structure and Acidity Constant / 107 4.5 Questions and Problems / 116 4.6 Bibliography / 119 5 Earth Systems and Compartments 121 5.1 Introduction / 123 5.2 The Atmosphere / 125 5.3 Surface Waters and Sediments / 131 5.4 Soil and Groundwater / 148 5.5 Biota / 154 5.6 Questions / 155 5.7 Bibliography / 158 6 Environmental Systems: Physical Processes and Mathematical Modeling 165 6.1 Systems and Models / 167 6.2 Box Models: A Concept for a Simple World / 174 6.3 When Space Matters: Transport Processes / 191 6.4 Models in Space and Time / 196 6.5 Questions and Problems / 203 6.6 Bibliography / 211 PART II Equilibrium Partitioning in Well-Defined Systems 213 7 Partitioning Between Bulk Phases: General Aspects and Modeling Approaches 215 7.1 Introduction / 216 7.2 Molecular Interactions Governing Bulk Phase Partitioning of Organic Chemicals / 217 7.3 Quantitative Approaches to Estimate Bulk Phase Partition Constants/Coefficients: Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFERs) / 225 7.4 Questions / 232 7.5 Bibliography / 234 8 Vapor Pressure (pi *) 237 8.1 Introduction and Theoretical Background / 238 8.2 Molecular Interactions Governing Vapor Pressure and Vapor Pressure Estimation Methods / 246 8.3 Questions and Problems / 253 8.4 Bibliography / 257 9 Solubility (Csat iw) and Activity Coefficient ( sat iw ) in Water; Air Water Partition Constant (Kiaw) 259 9.1 Introduction and Thermodynamic Considerations / 261 9.2 Molecular Interactions Governing the Aqueous Activity Coefficient and the Air Water Partition Constant / 267 9.3 LFERs for Estimating Air Water Partition Constants and Aqueous Activity Coefficients/Aqueous Solubilities / 270 9.4 Effect of Temperature, Dissolved Salts, and pH on the Aqueous Activity Coefficient/Aqueous Solubility and on the Air Water Partition Constant / 272 9.5 Questions and Problems / 282 9.6 Bibliography / 285 10 Organic Liquid Air and Organic Liquid Water Partitioning 289 10.1 Introduction / 291 10.2 Thermodynamic Considerations and Comparisons of Different Organic Solvents / 291 10.3 The Octanol Water System: The Atom/Fragment Contribution Method for Estimation of the Octanol Water Partition Constant / 298 10.4 Partitioning Involving Organic Solvent Water Mixtures / 301 10.5 Evaporation and Dissolution of Organic Compounds from Organic Liquid Mixtures Equilibrium Considerations / 307 10.6 Questions and Problems / 311 10.7 Bibliography / 317 11 Partitioning of Nonionic Organic Compounds Between Well-Defined Surfaces and Air or Water 321 11.1 Introduction / 322 11.2 Adsorption from Air to Well-Defined Surfaces / 322 11.3 Adsorption from Water to Inorganic Surfaces / 335 11.4 Questions and Problems / 342 11.5 Bibliography / 345 PART III Equilibrium Partitioning in Environmental Systems 349 12 General Introduction to Sorption Processes 351 12.1 Introduction / 352 12.2 Sorption Isotherms and the Solid Water Equilibrium Distribution Coefficient (Kid) / 354 12.3 Speciation (Sorbed versus Dissolved or Gaseous), Retardation, and Sedimentation / 360 12.4 Questions and Problems / 366 12.5 Bibliography / 368 13 Sorption from Water to Natural Organic Matter (NOM) 369 13.1 The Structural Diversity of Natural Organic Matter Present in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments / 371 13.2 Quantifying Natural Organic Matter Water Partitioning of Neutral Organic Compounds / 376 13.3 Sorption of Organic Acids and Bases to Natural Organic Matter / 388 13.4 Questions and Problems / 392 13.5 Bibliography / 397 14 Sorption of Ionic Organic Compounds to Charged Surfaces 405 14.1 Introduction / 407 14.2 Cation and Anion Exchange Capacities of Solids in Water / 408 14.3 Ion Exchange: Nonspecific Adsorption of Ionized Organic Chemicals from Aqueous Solutions to Charged Surfaces / 414 14.4 Surface Complexation: Specific Bonding of Organic Compounds with Solid Phases in Water / 426 14.5 Questions and Problems / 432 14.6 Bibliography / 436 15 Aerosol Air Partitioning: Dry and Wet Deposition of Organic Pollutants 441 15.1 Origins and Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols / 442 15.2 Assessing Aerosol Air Partition Coefficients (KiPMa) / 445 15.3 Dry and Wet Deposition / 453 15.4 Questions and Problems / 459 15.5 Bibliography / 464 16 Equilibrium Partitioning From Water and Air to Biota 469 16.1 Introduction / 471 16.2 Predicting Biota Water and Biota Air Equilibrium Partitioning / 471 16.3 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification in Aquatic Systems / 485 16.4 Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification in Terrestrial Systems / 498 16.5 Baseline Toxicity (Narcosis) / 503 16.6 Questions and Problems / 507 16.7 Bibliography / 514 PART IV Mass Transfer Processes in Environmental Systems 523 17 Random Motion, Molecular and Turbulent Diffusivity 525 17.1 Random Motion / 526 17.2 Molecular Diffusion / 534 17.3 Other Random Transport Processes in the Environment / 545 17.4 Questions and Problems / 550 17.5 Bibliography / 557 18 Transport at Boundaries 559 18.1 The Role of Boundaries in the Environment / 560 18.2 Bottleneck Boundaries / 562 18.3 Wall Boundaries / 567 18.4 Hybrid Boundaries / 572 18.5 Questions and Problems / 577 18.6 Bibliography / 580 19 Air Water Exchange 581 19.1 The Air Water Interface / 583 19.2 Air Water Exchange Models / 585 19.3 Measurement of Air Water Exchange Velocities / 592 19.4 Air Water Exchange in Flowing Waters / 599 19.5 Questions and Problems / 604 19.6 Bibliography / 613 20 Interfaces Involving Solids 617 20.1 The Sediment Water Interface / 618 20.2 Transport in Unsaturated Soil / 626 20.3 Questions and Problems / 630 20.4 Bibliography / 634 PART V Transformation Processes 635 21 Background Knowledge on Transformation Reactions of Organic Pollutants 637 21.1 Identifying Reactive Sites Within Organic Molecules / 638 21.2 Thermodynamics of Transformation Reactions / 643 21.3 Kinetics of Transformation Reactions / 650 21.4 Questions and Problems / 657 21.5 Bibliography / 661 22 Hydrolysis And Reactions With Other Nucleophiles 663 22.1 Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination Reactions Involving Primarily Saturated Carbon Atoms / 665 22.2 Hydrolytic Reactions of Carboxylic and Carbonic Acid Derivatives / 680 22.3 Enzyme-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Reactions: Hydrolases / 695 22.4 Questions and Problems / 701 22.5 Bibliography / 710 23 Redox Reactions 715 23.1 Introduction / 716 23.2 Evaluating the Thermodynamics of Redox Reactions / 719 23.3 Examples of Chemical Redox Reactions in Natural Systems / 730 23.4 Examples of Enzyme-Catalyzed Redox Reactions / 747 23.5 Questions and Problems / 756 23.6 Bibliography / 765 24 Direct Photolysis in Aquatic Systems 773 24.1 Introduction / 775 24.2 Some Basic Principles of Photochemistry / 776 24.3 Light Absorption by Organic Compounds in Natural Waters / 788 24.4 Quantum Yield and Rate of Direct Photolysis / 800 24.5 Effects of Solid Sorbents (Particles, Soil Surfaces, Ice) on Direct Photolysis / 803 24.6 Questions and Problems / 804 24.7 Bibliography / 811 25 Indirect Photolysis: Reactions with Photooxidants in Natural Waters and in the Atmosphere 815 25.1 Introduction / 816 25.2 Indirect Photolysis in Surface Waters / 817 25.3 Indirect Photolysis in the Atmosphere (Troposphere): Reaction with Hydroxyl Radical (HO*) / 829 25.4 Questions and Problems / 833 25.5 Bibliography / 838 26 Biotransformations 845 26.1 Introduction / 847 26.2 Some Important Concepts about Microorganisms Relevant to Biotransformations / 848 26.3 Initial Biotransformation Strategies / 858 26.4 Rates of Biotransformations / 864 26.5 Questions and Problems / 882 26.6 Bibliography / 889 27 Assessing Transformation Processes Using Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) 897 27.1 Introduction, Methodology, and Theoretical Background / 898 27.2 Using CSIA for Assessing Organic Compound Transformations in Laboratory and Field Systems / 914 27.3 Questions and Problems / 930 27.4 Bibliography / 936 PART VI Putting Everything Together 945 28 Exposure Assessment of Organic Pollutants Using Simple Modeling Approaches 947 28.1 One-Box Model: The Universal Tool for Process Integration / 948 28.2 Assessing Equilibrium Partitioning in Simple Multimedia Systems / 952 28.3 Simple Dynamic Systems / 956 28.4 Systems Driven by Advection / 960 28.5 Bibliography / 974 Appendix 977 Index 995

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118767238
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 1026
  • ID: 9781118767238
  • weight: 2772
  • ISBN10: 1118767233
  • edition: 3rd Edition

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

Prices are for internet purchases only. Prices and availability in WHSmith Stores may vary significantly

Close