Environmental stress is one of the most significant factors affecting livestock performance and health, and it is only expected to increase with effects of global warming. Environmental Physiology of Livestock brings together the latest research on environmental physiology, summarizing progress in the field and providing directions for future research. Recent developments in estimating heat stress loads are discussed, as well as key studies in metabolism, reproduction, and genetic expressions. Environmental Physiology of Livestock begins with a survey of current heat indexing tools, highlighting recent discoveries in animal physiology, changes in productivity levels, and new technologies available to better estimate stress response. Using this synopsis as a point of orientation, later chapters hone in on major effects of heat stress, including changing metabolic pathways and nutrient requirements, endocrine regulation of acclimation to environmental stress, and reduced reproductive performance. The text concludes with a thorough discussion of environmental effects on gene expressions, providing important insight for future breeding practices.
Environmental Physiology of Livestock is a globally contributed volume and a key resource for animal science researchers, geneticists, and breeders.
Contributors ix Foreword xi 1 From Heat Tolerance to Heat Stress Relief: An Evolution of Notions in Animal Farming 1 Amiel Berman 2 Physiological Basics of Temperature Regulation in Domestic Animals 17 Donald E. Spiers 3 Heat Stress and Evaporative Cooling 35 Kifle G. Gebremedhin 4 Regulation of Acclimation to Environmental Stress 49 Kajal Sankar Roy and Robert J. Collier 5 Environment and Animal Well-Being 65 S. D. Eicher 6 Effects of Environment on Metabolism 81 Lance Baumgard and Robert P. Rhoads 7 Impact of Hot Environment on Nutrient Requirements 101 Umberto Bernabucci 8 Effects of Environment on Animal Health: Mechanisms and Regulatory Inputs 129 Ted H. Elsasser, Cong-Jun Li, Jessica Shaffer, and Robert J. Collier 9 Effect of Environment on Immune Functions 165 Nicola Lacetera 10 Strategies for Improvement of Thermal and Reproductive Responses under Heat Stress 181 David Wolfenson and William W. Thatcher 11 Prospects for Improving Fertility during Heat Stress by Increasing Embryonic Resistance to Elevated Temperature 199 Peter J. Hansen 12 Environmental Heat Stress Impairs Placental Function, Fetal Growth and Development, and Postnatal Performance in Livestock 209 Dustin T. Yates, Xiaochuan Chen, and Sean W. Limesand 13 Effects of Photoperiod on Domestic Animals 229 Geoffrey E. Dahl and Izabella M. Thompson 14 Rethinking Heat Index Tools for Livestock 243 J. B. Gaughan, T. L. Mader, and K. G. Gebremedhin 15 Strategies to Reduce the Impact of Heat and Cold Stress in Dairy Cattle Facilities 267 John R. Smith and J. P. Harner, III 16 Genotype by Environment Interactions in Commercial Populations 289 Ignacy Misztal and Peter Lovendahl 17 Responses of Poultry to Environmental Challenges 309 J. Brake and S. Yahav Index 337