Environmental Process Analysis: Principles and Modeling

Environmental Process Analysis: Principles and Modeling

By: Henry V. Mott (author)Hardback

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Description

This book introduces students to the various contextual areas of environmental engineering and includes the application of basic mathematics, scientific principles, and beginning engineering concepts in environmental engineering. The systematic approach focuses upon context-independent applications of important chemical principles and then applies these principles to various environmental engineering topics. It also demonstrates a MathCAD worksheet for mathematically modeling various systems arising in environmental engineering. These concepts are applicable to water/wastewater treatment, surface mining, agricultural systems, landfills, aqueous and marine sediments, surface waters, and atmospheric moisture.

About Author

HENRY V. MOTT, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, is now a consultant in private practice and part-time instructor for the Civil Engineering Department of the University of Minnesota. Dr. Mott has developed and delivered a broad range of undergraduate and graduate courses, drawing upon his engineering practice experience to develop opportunities for students to apply fundamental principles in problem solving and design. His research has focused on contaminant fate and transport, physical/chemical/microbial processes, and environmental chemistry. For questions regarding the content of Environmental Process Analysis, direct communications with the author can be initiated via the Author Page at www.hvmott.com.

Contents

Preface xiii Acknowledgments xvii 1. Introductory Remarks 1 1.1 Perspective / 1 1.2 Organization and Objectives / 2 1.3 Approach / 8 2. Water 11 2.1 Perspective / 11 2.2 Important Properties of Water / 12 3. Concentration Units for Gases, Liquids, and Solids 16 3.1 Selected Concentration Units / 16 3.2 The Ideal Gas Law and Gas Phase Concentration Units / 20 3.3 Aqueous Concentration Units / 23 3.4 Applications of Volume Fraction Units / 28 4. The Law of Mass Action and Chemical Equilibria 36 4.1 Perspective / 36 4.2 The Law of Mass Action / 37 4.3 Gas/Water Distributions / 38 4.4 Acid/Base Systems / 39 4.5 Metal Complexation Systems / 40 4.6 Water/Solid Systems (Solubility/Dissolution) / 41 4.7 Oxidation/Reduction Half Reactions / 43 5. Air / Water Distribution: Henry s Law 44 5.1 Perspective / 44 5.2 Henry s Law Constants / 46 5.3 Applications of Henry s Law / 51 6. Acid/Base Component Distributions 64 6.1 Perspective / 64 6.2 Proton Abundance in Aqueous Solutions: pH and the Ion Product of Water / 65 6.3 Acid Dissociation Constants / 69 6.4 Mole Accounting Relations / 70 6.5 Combination of Mole Balance and Acid/Base Equilibria / 74 6.6 Alkalinity, Acidity, and the Carbonate System / 82 6.7 Applications of Acid/Base Principles in Selected Environmental Contexts / 91 7. Mass Balance, Ideal Reactors, and Mixing 119 7.1 Perspective / 119 7.2 The Mass Balance / 120 7.3 Residence Time Distribution (RTD) Analyses / 121 7.4 Exit Responses for Ideal Reactors / 125 7.5 Modeling of Mixing in Ideal CMFRs / 130 7.6 Applications of CMFR Mixing Principles in Environmental Systems / 144 8. Reactions in Ideal Reactors 157 8.1 Perspective / 157 8.2 Chemical Stoichiometry and Mass/Volume Relations / 158 8.3 Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 171 8.4 Applications of Reactions in Ideal Reactors / 183 8.5 Interfacial Mass Transfer in Ideal Reactors / 216 9. Reactions in Nonideal Reactors 265 9.1 Perspective / 265 9.2 Exit Concentration Versus Time Traces / 266 9.3 Residence Time Distribution Density / 267 9.4 Cumulative Residence Time Distributions / 271 9.5 Characterization of RTD Distributions / 272 9.6 Models for Addressing Longitudinal Dispersion in Reactors / 275 9.7 Modeling Reactions in CMFRs in Series (TiS) Reactors / 280 9.8 Modeling Reactions with the Plug-Flow with Dispersion Model / 282 9.9 Modeling Reactions Using the Segregated Flow (SF) Model / 289 9.10 Applications of Nonideal Reactor Models / 291 9.11 Considerations for Analyses of Spatially Variant Processes / 305 9.12 Modeling Utilization and Growth in PFR-Like Reactors Using TiS and SF / 318 10. Acid-Base Advanced Principles 335 10.1 Perspective / 335 10.2 Activity Coefficient / 336 10.3 Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants / 344 10.4 Nonideal Conjugate Acid/Conjugate Base Distributions / 350 10.5 The Proton Balance (Proton Condition) / 358 10.6 Analyses of Solutions Prepared by Addition of Acids, Bases, and Salts to Water / 365 10.7 Analysis of Mixed Aqueous Solutions / 380 10.8 Acid and Base Neutralizing Capacity / 396 10.9 Activity Versus Concentration for Nonelectrolytes / 417 11. Metal Complexation and Solubility 439 11.1 Perspective / 439 11.2 Hydration of Metal Ions / 440 11.3 Cumulative Formation Constants / 441 11.4 Formation Equilibria for Solids / 447 11.5 Speciation of Metals in Aqueous Solutions Containing Ligands / 448 11.6 Metal Hydroxide Solubility / 456 11.7 Solubility of Metal Carbonates / 467 11.8 Solubility of Other Metal Ligand Solids / 511 12. Oxidation and Reduction 519 12.1 Perspective / 519 12.2 Redox Half Reactions / 520 12.3 The Nernst Equation / 533 12.4 Electron Availability in Environmental Systems / 535 Appendices 571 References 599 Index 602

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118115015
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 632
  • ID: 9781118115015
  • weight: 1032
  • ISBN10: 1118115015

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