International forums have identified the need for comprehensive, transparent, scientific methods, for the pre-release testing and post-release monitoring of transgenic plants to ensure environmental safety. There is also wide recognition that the regulatory and scientific capacity for conducting these types of assessments needs to be strengthened. In response to these requirements, a GMO Guidelines Project was established - under the aegis of the International Organization for Biological Control - to develop biosafety testing guidelines for transgenic plants. This book is one of the first outputs from this project. The book aims, using the case study of Bt maize, to detail generic approaches to the evaluation of environmental impact of GM technologies. This book focuses on transgenic maize in Kenya. This maize includes genetic material derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which naturally produces proteins that are toxic to some insects. The book explores both the environmental and agricultural impacts of transgenic plants. It draws out general risk assessment guidelines, and demonstrates the need for case-by-case analysis. Although focused on Kenya and Bt Maize, the book's findings and recommendations are relevant and applicable to a multitude of nations and GM crops.
1: Bt Maize, Risk Assessment and the Kenya Case Study, 2: The Maize Agricultural Context in Kenya, 3: Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) for Genetically Modified Organisms: The Kenya Case Study, 4: Transgene Locus Structure and Expression of Bt Maize, 5: Biodiversity and Non-Target Impacts: a Case Study of Bt Maize in Kenya, 6: Gene Flow and its Consequences: a Case Study of Bt Maize in Kenya, 7: Resistance Risks and Management Associated with Bt Maize in Kenya, 8: Risk Assessment of Bt Maize in Kenya: Synthesis and Recommendations,