This book is specially designed for B.E./B.Tech. students of all branches of engineering and technology. The book is highly informative on different aspects of the environment. Efforts have been made to explain the fundamental concepts in a simple but comprehensive manner so that students can use this book as a reference.
Topics include: Ecology, Atmosphere, Noise pollution, Ozone, Air pollution control, Metal and nuclear pollution, Sustainable development, Hardness of water, Biodiversity, Greenhouse effect, Solid waste management, Air pollution, Water pollution, Population and growth, Environmental management system.
The unique strength of this book is the scientific approach. Mathematical problems and model questions, including multiple-choice questions, short-answer-type questions and long-answer-type questions are provided in Appendix II of this book as exercise for students. The book also covers details of the ISO concept of environment management system or EMS, covering environmental audit, technology diffusion, LCA model and EIA.
Abhijit Mallick is an Associate Professor In the Department of Chemistry, Academy of Technology, affiliated to West Bengal University of Technology. He completed his B.Sc. Chemistry Honours from Ramkrishna Mission Vivekananda Centenary College, affiliated to Calcutta University and obtained his postgraduate degrees from University Colleges of Science and Technology, Calcutta University, India. He earned his Ph.D. from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. He has published several international papers and two textbooks entitled, Chemistry for Engineers and Principles of Physical Metallurgy. He is a member of the Institute of Engineers (India). His areas of Interest include Applied Chemistry, Materials Science, Environmental Pollution Control and Management.
Chapter 1: Ecology * Introduction * Environmental science * Goals or objectives * Ecology * Ecosystem * Characteristics of ecosystem * Components of ecosystem * Aquatic ecosystem * Mangrove ecosystem * Some definitions * GPP * NPP * Niche * Habitat * Plankton * Biomagnification * Biodiversity * Receptor * Sink * Speciation * Bioremediation * Flora and Fauna * Food chain * Characteristics of a food chain * Environmental strain and stress * Plastic environmental strain * Elastic environmental strain * Environmental stress * Environment * Classification * Causes of disturbance * Pollution * Threshold Limit Value (TLV) * Pollutant * Pollution Standard Index (PSI) * Biogeochemical cycle Chapter 2: Biodiversity * Introduction * Definition * Classification * Importance of biodiversity * Endemic species * Biodiversity hotspots * Major threats to biodiversity * Causes of loss of biodiversity * Conservation of biodiversity * Steps to conserve biodiversity and biological resources * Conservation status rank * Ecosystem dynamics * Diversity Index * Definition * Biological diversity * Simpson's Diversity Indices * Simpson's Index (D) * Simpson's Index of Diversity (1 - D) * Simpson's Reciprocal Index (1/D) * Shannon Diversity Index Chapter 3: Atmosphere * Introduction * Definition * Physical Properties * Troposphere * Stratosphere * Mesosphere * Thermosphere * Exosphere * Ionosphere * Meteorology * Lapse rate * Adiabatic lapse rate or ALR * Environmental lapse rate or ELR * Calculation of Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate or DALR * Atmospheric stability * Unstable atmosphere * Stable atmosphere * Maximum mixing depth * Ventilation coefficient * Plume rise and dispersion * Introduction * Gaussian distribution of pollutant * Plume model * Calculation of CO2 emissions * Carbon footprint calculation * Solved problems Chapter 4: Greenhouse Effect * Surface temperature of earth * Black body model * Wien's displacement law * Greenhouse Effect * Beneficial effect * GHG * Adverse effects of GHG * Global warming * Global Warming Potential (GWP) * Steps to be taken to control global warming * Kyoto protocol * El-Nino and La-Nina * Radiation balance * Numerical problems Chapter 5: Noise Pollution * Introduction * Definition of noise * Measurement of noise * Noise dose * Classification of noise * Transport noise * Occupational noise * Neighbourhood noise * Adverse effects of noise pollution * Control of noise pollution * The applications of ultrasonic sound waves * Noise Threshold Limit Value (NTLV) * Numerical examples Chapter 6: Solid Waste Management * Soil pollution * Causes of soil pollution * Adverse effects of soil pollution * Control of soil pollution * Soil profile * Solid Waste Management * Hazardous solid wastes * Components of MSW * Stages of solid wastes management Chapter 7: Ozone * Introduction * UV radiation and its harmful effect * Harmful effects of UV radiation * Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) * Introduction * Hydrofluorocarbons * CFC numbering * Applications of ODS * Measuring of ozone layer thickness * Formation of ozone hole * Beneficial effects of ozone * Enemies of ozone * Ozone depleting potential * Montreal Protocol * Tropospheric ozone * Sources of tropospheric ozone * Adverse effects of tropospheric ozone * Permissible concentration of ozone in air Chapter 8: Air Pollutants * Introduction * Classification * Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) * Sources of fine particles * Adverse effects of fine particles * Permissible concentration of fine particles in air * Aerosol * Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) * Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) * Sources of NO2 * Adverse effects of nitrogen dioxide * Permissible concentration of nitrogen dioxide in air * Carbon monoxide (CO) * Sources and contributors of carbon monoxide * Adverse effects of carbon monoxide * Permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in air * Sulphur dioxide (SO2) * Sources of sulphur dioxide * Adverse effects of sulphur dioxide * Permissible concentration of sulphur dioxide in air * Ozone (O3) * Sources of ozone * Adverse effects of ozone * Permissible concentration of ozone in air * Beneficial effects of ozone * Hydrocarbons * Sources of hydrocarbons * Adverse effects of hydrocarbons * Permissible concentration of hydrocarbons in air * Smog * Photochemical smog * Reducing smog * Acid rain * Adverse effects of acid rain * Precautionary measurement to prevent acid rain Chapter 9: Air Pollution Control * Criteria pollutants * Treatment of factory exhaust * Cyclone separator * Filter bag unit * Liquid scrubbers * Cold chamber * Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) * Thermal precipitator * Absorption column * Treatment of automobile exhaust * Efficiency of a catalytic converter Chapter 10: Water Pollution * Hydrologic cycle * Causes of water pollution * Environmental damages due to water pollution * Decomposition of organic wastes * Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) * The BOD5 test * Unseeded dilution method * Seeded dilution method * Manometric method * The BOD reaction rate * Disadvantages in BOD determination * Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) * Determination of COD * Advantages of COD determination over BOD determination * Nitrogenous BOD (NBOD) * Theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) * Dissolved oxygen (DO) * Effects of low DO value * Factors influencing DO level of a water reservoir * Calculation of dissolved oxygen * Oxygen sag curve * Water Pollutants * Turbidity and odour * Turbidity * Odour * Drinking water quality standard * Municipal waste water treatment * Primary waste water treatment plant * Secondary treatment plant * Tertiary treatment plant * Eutrophication * Oligotrophic lake * Overnutrition and eutrophication * Liebig's law of minimum * Causes of eutrophication * Aquifers * Definition and classification * Darcy's law * Estimation of dissolved oxygen (Winkler's method) * Numerical problems Chapter 11: Metal and Nuclear Pollutions * Copper * Toxic effects of Cadmium (Cd) * Source * General adverse effects * Biochemical effects * Preventive measures against cadmium pollution * Toxic effects of Lead (Pb) * Source * General adverse effects * Biochemical effect * Control measures against lead pollution * Toxic effects of Arsenic * Source * General adverse effects * Biochemical effect * Preventive measures against arsenic pollution * Toxic effects of Mercury * Introduction * General adverse effects * Biochemical effect * Preventive measures against mercury pollution * Nuclear Pollution * Radiation measurement * Classification of nuclear wastes * Adverse effects due to nuclear pollution Chapter 12: Population and Growth * Introduction * Definitions * Population momentum * Life table * Population growth model * Discrete growth model * Exponential growth model * Logistic growth model * Gaussian distribution model * Club of Rome * History of foundation * Mission of CoR * Reserve index * Static reserve index number * Exponential reserve index number * Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) * Definition * Significances of MSY * Applications of MSY * Limitations of MSY * Solved problems and exercises Chapter 13: Sustainable Development * Environmental problems * Some facts * Environmental problems in India * Sustainable development * Necessity of sustainable development * Some examples of environmental degradation for the sake of economic development * Concept of sustainable development * Steps to execute the above concept of sustainable development * Agenda 21 * Objectives of ICLEI * The agreement * Water use sustainability * Criteria for water use sustainability * Resources * Definition * Classification * Mineral resource * Biomass energy * Geothermal energy * Resource consumption * Exponential consumption * Gaussian distribution of resource consumption Chapter 14: Environmental Management System * The Deming cycle * Introduction * Objectives of EMS * ISO 14001 elements * Environmental policy * Implementation and operation * Checking and corrective action * ISO 14001 registration process * Opportunities * Benefits * Urban air quality management * Objectives of air quality management * EPA-1986 * Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) * Some important features of EMS * Environmental policy and some key features of it * The guiding principles of environmental policy * Environmental policy statement * Environmental performance * The principles of ISO 14001 * The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) * Different environmental problems in India * Different environmental legislations in India * Environmental audit * Introduction * Types of environmental audit * Planning an environmental audit * Objectives of environmental audit * Environmental audit process * Benefits of environmental audit * Life Cycle Assessment * Definition * Goal * Goal and Scope * Life Cycle Inventory * Life Cycle Impact Assessment * Life Cycle Interpretation * Technology diffusion process * Definition * Technological progress * Advantages of technology diffusion * The green revolution * Classification of technology * Conclusions * Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) * Introduction * Key-elements * Benefits of EIA Chapter 15: Hardness of Water * Water Hardness * Types of hardness * Temporary hardness * Permanent hardness * Unit of hardness * Estimation of hardness of water using complexometric titration * Treatment of hard water * External treatment * Internal treatment * Alkalinity of water * Problems on boiler * Boiler corrosion * Caustic embrittlement * Scale and Sludge * Carry over * Numerical problems on water softening by lime-soda process * Numerical problems on alkalinity * Appendix-I * Appendix-Il: Model Questions Bibliography * Index