Epidemiological Criminology: A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence

Epidemiological Criminology: A Public Health Approach to Crime and Violence

By: Timothy A. Akers (author), Roberto Hugh Potter (author), Carl V. Hill (author)Paperback

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Description

Written by the three leading experts in the field, this book combines an introduction to the sources and methods of epidemiological criminology and an application of these methods to some of the most vexing problems now confronting researchers and practitioners in public health and criminology. The book describes, explains, and applies the newly formulated practice of epidemiological criminology, an emerging discipline that links methods and statistical models of public health, particularly epidemiological theory, methods, and models, with the corresponding tools of their criminal justice counterparts. The book also applies epidemiological criminology as a practical tool to address population issues of violence and crime on a national and global basis.

About Author

Timothy A. Akers, M.S., Ph.D., is a professor of public health and associate dean for graduate studies and research in the School of Computer, Mathematical and Natural Sciences and director of the Center for Health Informatics, Planning and Policy at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland.? Roberto H. Potter, Ph.D., is the director of research partnerships at the Department of Criminal Justice, College of Health and Public Affairs at the University of Central Florida. Carl V. Hill, M.P.H, Ph.D., is a health scientist administrator and contract officer's representative with the National Institutes of Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.?

Contents

Figures and Tables xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xxiii The Authors xxix Introduction: Crime, Criminal Justice, Health, and Victims xxxiii Levels of Theoretical Analysis xxxiv Why the Meso Is Important xxxvii Revising the Epidemiological Trinity xliii Hosts, Agents, Agency, and Behavior xlviii Risk, Deviance, Crime, and Health l Summary lv PART ONE FOUNDATION FOR AN EMERGING PARADIGM: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CRIMINOLOGY Chapter 1 Establishing a Historical Framework for Epidemiological Criminology 3 The War on Poverty 6 The War on Crime 11 The War on Drugs 18 The War on Terror 22 Conclusion 24 Summary 24 Chapter 2 Where Two Worlds Collide: Toward an Integrated Theory of Epidemiological Criminology 27 Roots and Forks in the Road 28 History 29 Determining When or Where to Start an Investigation 31 Defining an Emerging Paradigm 35 Epidemiological Criminology 47 Conclusion 50 Summary 52 Chapter 3 The Lexicon of Terminology: Developing an Emerging Paradigm 57 Scientific and Practice Integration: Building an Emerging Paradigm 59 Theories and Models: An Integrative Paradigm 60 Theories and Models: Framing the Paradigm 64 Units of Analysis 68 Health and Crime: Biomedical and Behavioral Disparities 69 Prevention Interventions 70 Causation: The Epidemiologic Triad 72 Conclusion 73 Summary 73 PART TWO THEORIES, CONCEPTS, AND METHODS Chapter 4 Criminology, Criminal Justice, and the Social Sciences 79 Criminology 79 Criminal Justice 80 Where Does That Leave Epidemiological Criminology? 81 Public Health 82 Lessons from the Foundation of Sociology 89 Conclusion 92 Summary 92 Chapter 5 Research Methods in Epidemiology and Criminology: A Bridge Between? 95 Surveillance or Monitoring? 96 Monitoring, Surveillance, and Epidemiological Criminology 99 Method, Technique, and Theory 100 The Evidence Base 102 In the Field and on the Streets 103 Conclusion 104 Summary 104 Chapter 6 Integrating the Interdisciplinary Sciences: Theoretical Foundations of the Epidemiological Criminology Framework 107 Criminogenics: The Evidence Base of Individual Criminal Behavior 108 Propensity Versus Typology: How Changeable Are Criminogenics? 109 Dynamic Risks 110 Implications for Public Health Interventions 113 Social Learning and Social Structure: Moving Evidence to the Next Social Levels 113 Epidemiological Criminology Implications for Public Health Interventions 118 Conclusion 121 Summary 122 PART THREE APPLYING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CRIMINOLOGY IN PRACTICE AND POLICY Chapter 7 Health Disparities and Epidemiological Criminology 129 Health Disparities 132 Conceptualizing Criminogenic Health Disparities 137 Conceptualizing Epidemiological Criminology and Disparities 141 Conclusion 143 Summary 144 Chapter 8 Incarceration and Epidemiological Criminology 147 The Organizational Ecology of Incarceration 149 Incarceration by Police 152 Juvenile Detention: A Snapshot 155 The Process of Incarceration 156 The Epidemiology of Incarceration: The Importance of Process 162 Criminal Records 164 Conclusion 166 Summary 166 Chapter 9 The Health of Correctional Populations 169 Competing Images: Magic Castles and Houses of Horror 169 Juvenile Detention 171 Jail 172 Health of Jail Inmates 173 Health of Prisoners 176 HIV: An Exemplar of Where One Looks and How 178 Reentry to the Community 190 Implications for Epidemiological Criminology 192 Conclusion 193 Summary 193 Chapter 10 Recidivism and Epidemiological Criminology 197 Why Measure Recidivism? 198 Defining and Measuring Recidivism 199 How Much Recidivism? 201 Who Returns to Prison? 204 Jails and Recidivism 205 Health Recidivism 206 Conclusion 208 Summary 209 Chapter 11 Gang Violence and Adolescent Membership 213 Biopsychosocial and Environmental Determinants 214 Micro-, Meso-, and Macroinfluences 218 Epidemiology of Gangs and Gang Violence 221 An Integrated Approach 226 Health Behavior and Criminal Behavior 228 Biomedical Disparities and Behavioral Disparities 230 Conclusion 232 Summary 232 Chapter 12 Criminality, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health: An Epidemiological Criminology Framework 237 Criminalization 237 Mental Illness, Crime, and Criminal Justice 239 Mental Illness and Epidemiological Criminology 243 Substance Abuse 244 Substance Abuse and Epidemiological Criminology 246 Conclusion 249 Summary 250 Chapter 13 Victims and Victimization 255 Victims and Victimology 256 The Academy Discovers Victims 258 The Role of Place: Geography and Victimization 259 Routine Activities 259 The Health Industrial Complex Discovers Victims 260 Measuring Victims 262 Violence and Epidemiological Criminology 264 Conclusion 265 Summary 266 PART FOUR FUTURE DIRECTION AND TRENDS Chapter 14 Environmental Justice and the Epidemiology of Crime 271 What Is Environment? What Is Justice? 273 The Traditional Epidemiological Approach: What Is Missing? 275 Segregation and Health 277 Residential Segregation and Criminal Behavior 281 Environmental Justice and Epidemiological Criminology 283 Conclusion 285 Summary 285 Chapter 15 Global and Domestic Terrorism 289 Epidemiology of Terrorism 291 Epidemiological Criminology as an Integrated Paradigm 294 Biopsychosocial and Environmental Makeup of Terrorism and Terrorists 297 Micro-, Meso-, and Macroinfluences 300 Health Behavior and Criminal Behavior 302 Biomedical Disparities and Behavioral Disparities 304 Conclusion 306 Summary 306 Chapter 16 Criminal Law, Public Health Law, and the Epidemiological Criminology Framework 311 Criminal Law, Public Health Law, and Social Control 314 Whose Interests? 321 Law and Epidemiological Criminology 325 Values 326 Conclusion 330 Summary 331 Chapter 17 International Human Rights and Human Trafficking 335 What Is a Right? 335 Does the Epidemiological Criminology Framework Fit Human Rights? 338 A General Model of Trafficking 340 Trafficking Networks 343 Individual Traffickers and Individual Victims 344 Responding to Human Trafficking from an Epidemiological Criminology Framework 347 Conclusion 348 Summary 349 References 353 Further Reading 387 Index 391

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780470638897
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 464
  • ID: 9780470638897
  • weight: 730
  • ISBN10: 0470638893

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