Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change

Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change

By: Andrew Zimbalist (editor), Nancy Hogshead-Makar (editor)Paperback

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Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 reflects America's aspirational belief that girls and boys, women and men, both deserve equal educational opportunities in athletics. "Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change" shows how this now commonly-held ideal has been both implemented and thwarted over the years via actions in the legislature, executive and judicial branches of government. The book collects the best scholarship and essays, the important court cases, the administrative regulations and supporting documents on this important social movement. The authors demonstrate how government actions can shape, support, or hinder the goal of gender equality in athletic departments. They develop a discussion on the history of women in sports, analyze the meaning of "equal opportunity" for girls and women to participate in sports, and examine shifts in the arguments for and against Title IX. The expansive time-frame allows students to consider legal advocacy not as a means of overcoming a single hurdle or an event to be achieved, but as a continuum of progress toward the central purpose of the law.

About Author

Nancy Hogshead-Makar is a Professor at the Florida Coastal School of Law. She is a former President of the Women's Sports Foundation (1992-94) and currently serves as its legal advisor. She has testified in Congress numerous times on the topic of gender equity in athletics, written numerous scholarly and lay articles, serves as an expert witness in Title IX cases, and has written amicus briefs representing athletic organizations in the U.S. Supreme Court. Professor Hogshead-Makar is an Olympic Champion from the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, wining three gold medals and one silver medal in swimming. Andrew Zimbalist is Robert A. Woods Professor of Economics at Smith College. He is the author or editor of eighteen previous books, including The Bottom Line: Observations and Arguments on the Sports Business (Temple) and In the Best Interest of Baseball? The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig. He is a member of the Editorial Board of The Journal of Sports Economics, and has consulted extensively in the sports industry for players associations, leagues, cities, and owners.


Introduction - Nancy Hogshead-Makar & Andrew Zimbalist Part I Introduction: Women's Sports Before Title IX - Nancy Hogshead-Makar & Andrew Zimbalist; Coming on Strong, Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth Century Sports - Susan Cahn; Heroines As Well As Heroes - Welch Suggs; Didrikson was a Woman Ahead of Her Time - Larry Schwartz; Sport is Unfair to Women - Bil Gilbert & Nancy Williamson Part II Introduction: Staking a Claim: The First Decade - Nancy Hogshead-Makar & Andrew Zimbalist; Speech of Senator Birch Bayh: New York Women's Political Caucus New York, November 23, 1975 Amendment to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; Statement of Hon. Birch Bayh, a U.S. Senator from the State of Indiana on the Tower Amendment; Javits Amendment passed May 20, 1974 - Provision Relating to Sex Discrimination 1975 Title IX Regulations A Policy Interpretation: Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics; United States District Court, D. Kansas. NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION, Plaintiff, v. Joseph CALIFANO, Secretary of the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Defendant, et al.; Decided Jan. 9, 1978; Supreme Court of the United States Geraldine G. CANNON, Petitioner, v. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO et al.; Decided May 14, 1979 Part III Introduction: The Initial Backlash: the 1980s - Nancy Hogshead-Makar & Andrew Zimbalist; Supreme Court of the United States GROVE CITY COLLEGE, Individually and on Behalf of its Students, et al., Petitioners v. Terrel H. BELL, Secretary of Education, et al.; Decided Feb. 28, 1984. Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987; Reducing the Commercialization of Intercollegiate Athletics - Gary R. Roberts Part IV Introduction: Accelerated Pace: the 1990s - Nancy Hogshead-Makar & Andrew Zimbalist; Testing Title IX: Amy Cohen and Brown University - Andrew Zimbalist; United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit. Amy COHEN, et al., Plaintiffs-Appellees, v. BROWN UNIVERSITY, et al., Defendants-Appellants; Decided Nov. 21, 1996.; 1996 Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Test; Bowling Green Letter; Linda Carpenter and Vivian Acosta, "Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study, 1977-2006"; Stronger Women Mariah Burton Nelson Part V Introduction: The Second Backlash: 2000-2006 - Nancy Hogshead-Makar & Andrew Zimbalist; United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. NATIONAL WRESTLING COACHES ASSOCIATION, et al., Appellants, v. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, Appellee.; Decided May 14, 2004. Tilting THE Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX Jessica Gavora; A Critique of Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX Nancy Hogshead-Makar "What To Do About Title IX"; Testimony Before Secretary Paige's Commission on Title IX - Andrew Zimbalist; Open to All: Title IX at Thirty Minority Views on the Report of the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics - Donna de Varona and Julie Foudy; Limitations of the Department of Education's Online Survey Method for Measuring Athletic Interest and Ability on U.S.A. Campuses - Don Sabo & Christine Grant; Bush Administration Uses Stealth Tactics to Subvert Title IX - Andrew Zimbalist; Football Is a Sucker's Game - Michael Sokolove; Title IX by the Numbers - Andrew Zimbalist

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781592133802
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 328
  • ID: 9781592133802
  • ISBN10: 1592133800

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