Africans have long resorted to a range of strategies to escape domination - they have migrated, they have dropped out, and they have developed second economies. In this text, the author takes examples from across the continent to establish a discussible model.
North America: Africa World Press
Political migration; discontinuance from formal politics; secessionism; cultural withdrawal; illegal second economy activity; the distribution and consequences of disengagement. Appendix: reported voter participation in Africa 1957-98.