Esophageal Cancer and Barrett's Esophagus (3rd Revised edition)

Esophageal Cancer and Barrett's Esophagus (3rd Revised edition)

By: Richard E. Sampliner (editor), Eric van Cutsem (editor), David Ilson (editor), Prateek Sharma (editor)Hardback

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Description

Esophageal Cancer and Barrett s Esophagus, 3E, focuses on these two common and key conditions that affect the esophagus, providing expert guidance to their pathogenesis, cause, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management. Top international names in the field examine each of the many issues involved, using the very latest evidence-based research, and clear, didactic advice allows the reader to understand the best methods of diagnosis and clinical management of each condition whether early or late stage. Well-illustrated and fully revised to include the latest in ACG/ASG/UEGW guidelines, it is the perfect consultation tool for gastroenterologists and oncologists managing patients with cancer of the esophagus. It is also ideal for teaching residents and fellows optimum patient management, and for identifying areas requiring future research.

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About Author

Professor Prateek Sharma, Professor Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Kansas City, Missouri, and Southern Arizona Veterans Affairs Health Care System and Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA Professor Richard Sampliner, Professor of Medicine at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA , and Chief of Gastroenterology at the Southern Arizona VA Health Care System David Ilson, MD, PHD, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA

Contents

List of contributors ix Preface xiii 1 Epidemiology of esophageal carcinoma 1 Mohammad H. Shakhatreh and Hashem B El-Serag 1.1 The incidence and mortality related to esophageal cancer 1 1.2 Mortality 2 1.3 Risk factors for EA 2 2 Barrett s esophagus: definition and diagnosis 15 Stuart Jon Spechler 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Early history of Barrett s esophagus 15 2.3 Early reports on the histology of Barrett s esophagus 16 2.4 Identification of the gastroesophageal junction 16 2.5 Recognition of short segment Barrett s esophagus 17 2.6 Intestinal metaplasia and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus 18 2.7 The problem of cardiac mucosa 18 2.8 Definition of Barrett s esophagus 19 2.9 Diagnostic criteria for Barrett s esophagus 19 2.10 Intestinal metaplasia at the GEJ 20 3 Epidemiology and prevalence of Barrett s esophagus 25 Helen G. Coleman, Shivaram K. Bhat and Liam J. Murray 3.1 Introduction 25 3.2 BE prevalence 25 3.3 BE incidence 28 3.4 Etiology and risk factors for BE 30 3.5 Neoplastic progression risk in BE 30 3.6 Conclusions 31 4 Esophageal adenocarcinoma: risk factors 35 Mariam Naveed and Kerry B. Dunbar 4.1 Introduction 35 4.2 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 35 4.3 Barrett s esophagus (BE) 36 4.4 Obesity 37 4.5 Smoking 37 4.6 Alcohol 38 4.7 Dietary factors 38 4.8 Medication use 38 4.9 H. pylori 39 4.10 Demographics 39 4.11 Summary 39 5 Esophageal motility abnormalities in Barrett s esophagus 45 Kumar Krishnan, John E. Pandolfino and Peter J. Kahrilas 5.1 Introduction 45 5.2 Antireflux barrier 45 5.3 Lower esophageal sphincter 46 5.4 Diaphragmatic sphincter and hiatal hernia 46 5.5 Mechanical properties of the relaxed EGJ 47 5.6 Esophageal clearance 48 5.7 Peristaltic dysfunction 49 5.8 Gastric emptying and duodenogastroesophageal reflux 49 5.9 Therapy of motor abnormalities in Barrett s esophagus 50 5.10 Conclusion 50 6 Molecular biology of Barrett s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma 55 Ayesha Noorani and Rebecca C. Fitzgerald 6.1 Introduction 55 6.2 Genetic and host susceptibility 55 6.3 Environmental factors contributing to the development of BE 57 6.4 Genomic instability mutations and copy number changes in candidate genes 58 6.5 The advent of next generation sequencing 61 6.6 Future directions and conclusions 63 7 Histology of Barrett s esophagus: metaplasia and dysplasia 69 Deepa T. Patil and John R. Goldblum 7.1 Introduction 69 7.2 Normal anatomy and histology 69 7.3 Histology of Barrett s esophagus 69 7.4 Intestinal metaplasia of the EGJ 71 7.5 Barrett s esophagus-related dysplasia 71 7.6 Intramucosal adenocarcinoma (IMC) 72 7.7 Submucosal adenocarcinoma 73 7.8 Morphologic types of dysplasia 73 7.9 Sampling error and observer variation in Barrett s esophagus-related dysplasia 74 7.10 Surrogate biomarkers for assessing risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma 74 8 Helicobacter pylori and esophageal neoplasia 79 Arne Kandulski, Marino Venerito and Peter Malfertheiner 8.1 Introduction 79 8.2 H. pylori infection gastritis pattern and gastric physiology with impact on gastroesophageal reflux disease 79 8.3 Epidemiological studies GERD symptoms, erosive esophagitis and H. pylori 80 8.4 H. pylori, Barrett s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma 81 8.5 H. pylori eradication and GERD 82 8.6 H. pylori and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 83 8.7 Conclusions 84 9 Screening and surveillance 87 Sarmed S. Sami and Krish Ragunath 9.1 Introduction 87 9.2 Screening 87 9.3 Surveillance 90 9.4 Conclusion 93 10 New surface imaging technologies for dysplasia and cancer detection 97 David F. Boerwinkel, Wouter L. Curvers and Jacques J.G.H.M. Bergman 10.1 Introduction 97 10.2 Surface imaging in Barrett s esophagus 98 10.3 Surface imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 103 10.4 Summary 104 11 New cellular imaging technologies for dysplasia and cancer detection 107 Helmut Neumann and Ralf Kiesslich 11.1 Introduction 107 11.2 Confocal laser endomicroscopy 107 11.3 Endocytoscopy 110 11.4 Optical coherence tomography 111 11.5 Molecular imaging in Barrett s 112 11.6 Conclusion 112 12 The role of endoscopic ultrasound in esophageal cancer 115 Samad Soudagar and Neil Gupta 12.1 Background 115 12.2 Equipment 115 12.3 Visualized EUS anatomy 115 12.4 Obstacles to accurate EUS staging 116 12.5 Esophageal cancer staging and impact on treatment intervention 117 12.6 T staging 117 12.7 N staging 119 12.8 M staging 120 12.9 Restaging after chemoradiotherapy and surveillance for disease recurrence 120 12.10 Conclusion/summary 121 13 Staging of esophageal adenocarcinoma by CT, PET, and other modalities 125 Florian Lordick, Katja Ott, Matthias Ebert, Lars Grenacher, Bernd-Joachim Krause and Christian Wittekind 13.1 Introduction 125 13.2 Endoscopic staging 125 13.3 Staging by external ultrasonography 128 13.4 Staging by radiological examinations 128 13.5 Staging by positron emission tomography (PET) 129 13.6 The value of FDG-PET to predict response to pre-operative treatment 130 13.7 Conclusion: summary of recommended staging procedures 132 14 Medical management of Barrett s esophagus 137 Sachin Wani 14.1 Introduction 137 14.2 Assessment of symptoms 137 14.3 Acid suppressive therapies in management of reflux symptoms 138 14.4 Normalization of intraesophageal acid exposure 138 14.5 Management of erosive esophagitis 139 14.6 Maintenance of healed mucosa after endoscopic eradication therapies 139 14.7 Conclusions 140 15 Thermal therapies and photodynamic therapy for early esophageal neoplasia 143 Jacques Deviere 15.1 Introduction 143 15.2 Photodynamic therapy 144 15.3 Argon plasma coagulation 144 15.4 Cryotherapy 147 15.5 Conclusion 147 16 RFA for early esophageal neoplasia 151 Daniel K. Chan, Cadman L. Leggett and Kenneth K. Wang 16.1 Background 151 16.2 Device and procedural technique 151 16.3 Efficacy and durability of radiofrequency ablation 154 16.4 Initial treatment response to RFA and risk factors for failed ablation 156 16.5 Endoscopic mucosal resection in combination with radiofrequency ablation 157 16.6 Safety and tolerability of radiofrequency ablation 157 16.7 Subsquamous intestinal metaplasia after radiofrequency ablation 157 16.8 Surveillance following radiofrequency ablation 158 16.9 Conclusions 158 17 The role of endoscopic cryotherapy for treatment and palliation 161 Kristle Lee Lynch, Eun Ji Shin and Marcia Irene Canto 17.1 Introduction 161 17.2 Cryotherapy mechanisms of tissue injury 161 17.3 Types of cryotherapy: devices, dosing, and endoscopic application 162 17.4 Efficacy and safety in Barrett s esophagus 164 17.5 Cryotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma 166 17.6 Summary and future directions 167 18 Endoscopic resection 169 Oliver Pech 18.1 Introduction 169 18.2 ER techniques 169 18.3 ER in HGIN and early Barrett s cancer 171 18.4 ER of submucosal Barrett s adenocarcinoma 174 18.5 Conclusions 174 19 Endoscopic submucosal dissection 177 Hironori Yamamoto, Tsuneo Oyama and Takuji Gotoda 19.1 Introduction 177 19.2 Indications of ESD for esophageal cancer 177 19.3 Preoperative examination 178 19.4 Techniques of ESD [19 22] for esophageal cancer 178 19.5 Complications 184 19.6 Sedation and anesthesia 185 19.7 Results 185 19.8 Training 185 19.9 Conclusion 186 20 Surgical therapy of early esophageal cancer 189 Toshitaka Hoppo and Blair A. Jobe 20.1 Introduction 189 20.2 Early esophageal cancer 189 20.3 Indication of surgical resection for early esophageal adenocarcinoma 190 20.4 Strategy of surgical resection for early esophageal adenocarcinoma 190 20.5 Choice of surgical approach and outcomes 191 20.6 Discussion 194 20.7 Conclusion 195 21 Chemoprevention: can we prevent esophageal cancer? 199 Janusz Jankowski and Mary Denholm 21.1 Overview 199 21.2 The effect of aspirin on cancer prevention 200 21.3 Risks and adverse effects of aspirin 201 21.4 The role of aspirin in reflux disease 203 21.5 Risk-benefits of aspirin 204 21.6 AspECT trial 205 22 Selection of patients for cancer prevention and eradication 209 Aaron J. Small and Gary W. Falk 22.1 Introduction 209 22.2 Patient factors 209 22.3 Cancer risk and grade of dysplasia 210 22.4 Baseline quality measures 212 22.5 The lesion 213 22.6 Predictors of response 215 22.7 Predictors of initial response to therapy 215 22.8 Future considerations 217 22.9 Conclusions 217 23 Combined modality therapy in locally advanced esophageal cancer 221 Geoffrey Y. Ku and David H. Ilson 23.1 Introduction 221 23.2 Pre-operative chemotherapy 221 23.3 Post-operative therapy 222 23.4 Chemoradiation for medically inoperably patients 224 23.5 Pre-operative chemoradiation 224 23.6 Pre-operative chemoradiation vs. chemotherapy 225 23.7 Definitive vs. pre-operative chemoradiation 225 23.8 Newer chemoradiation regimens 226 23.9 Targeted therapies 226 23.10 Positron emission tomography-directed therapy 227 23.11 Conclusion 228 24 Surgery in locally advanced esophageal cancer 231 Nabil Rizk 24.1 Introduction 231 24.2 Chemotherapy, chemoradiation and surgical complications 231 24.3 Technical considerations 232 24.4 Risks of salvage surgery 233 24.5 Conclusion 234 25 Radiation therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer 237 Heath D. Skinner and Bruce D. Minsky 25.1 Introduction 237 25.2 Definitive therapy in unresectable locally advanced esophageal cancer 237 25.3 Trimodality therapy 240 25.4 Techniques of radiation therapy 243 25.5 Conclusions 245 26 Systemic therapy and targeted agents in advanced esophageal cancer 251 Mark A. Lewis and Harry H. Yoon 26.1 Introduction 251 26.2 Chemotherapy 251 26.3 Targeted therapy 253 26.4 Future directions 258 26.5 Conclusions 259 27 Role of endoscopy and nutritional support in advanced esophageal cancer 265 Manol Jovani, Andrea Anderloni and Alessandro Repici 27.1 Introduction 265 27.2 Nutritional support in advanced esophageal cancer 266 27.3 Palliative endoscopy in inoperable esophageal cancer 266 27.4 Conclusion 273 Index 277

Product Details

  • publication date: 16/10/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118655207
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 304
  • ID: 9781118655207
  • weight: 836
  • ISBN10: 1118655206
  • edition: 3rd Revised edition

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