Essential Readings in Light Metals: Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production (Volume 4)

Essential Readings in Light Metals: Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production (Volume 4)

By: Alan Tomsett (editor), John A. Johnson (editor)Hardback

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This compilation is the most comprehensive historical collection of papers written on primary aluminum science and technology. It is a definitive reference in the field of aluminum production and related light metals technologies and contains a strong mix of materials science and practical, applied technology. Written for materials scientists and engineers, metallurgists, mechanical engineers, aerospace and automobile engineers, electrical and electronics engineers, this volume is a valuable resource for the global aluminum and light metals industries.

About Author

ALAN TOMSETT, PhD, is Technical Director for the Pacific Technology Center, Pacific Aluminum, where he provides technical support and advice to the Pacific Aluminum smelters. Dr. Tomsett has more than twenty-five years of experience in carbon anode and cathode technology. JOHN JOHNSON, MS, heads his own consulting business. He has forty-two years of experience in the aluminum industry, specializing in prebake and VSS anode technology as well as prebake cell design and development. Mr. Johnson was the Editor of Light Metals 2010.


Preface xv Lead Editors xix Editorial Team xxi Part 1: Hall-Heroult Cell Carbon Anodes Section Introduction 1 Raw Materials: Coke Calcined Coke from Crude Oil to Customer Silo 3 B. Vitchus, F. Cannova, and H. Childs Refinery Feedstocks, Coke Structures and Aluminum Cell Anodes 11 P. Rhedey and D. DuTremblay Coker Feedstock Characteristics and Calcined Coke Properties 19 P. Rhedey and S. Nadkarni Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners 24 L. Edwards High Vanadium Venezuelan Petroleum Coke, A Rawmaterial for the Aluminum Industry? 30 U. Mannweiler, W. Schmidt-Hatting, D. Rodriguez, and A. Maitland Use of Shot Coke as an Anode Raw Material 36 L. Edwards, F. Vogt, M. Robinette, R. Love, A. Ross, M. McClung, R. Roush, and W. Morgan Influence of High Sulphur Cokes on Anode Performance 42 S. Jones, R. Hildebrandt, and M. Hedlund Carbon Raw Material Effects on Aluminum Reduction Cell Anodes 53 P. Rhedey and S. Nadkarni A Comprehensive Determination of Effects of Calcined Petroleum Coke Properties on Aluminum Reduction Cell Anode Properties 59 D. Belitskus and D. Danka A Comprehensive Review of the Effects of Calcination at Various Temperatures on Coke Structure and Properties - Part 2 73 E. Hardin, C. Beilharz, P. Ellis, and L. McCoy Influence of Coke Real Density on Anode Reactivity Consequence on Anode Baking 84 B. Coste and J. Schneider Coke Calcination Levels and Aluminum Anode Quality 93 C. Dreyer, B. Samanos, and F. Vogt Impact of Coke Calcination Level and Anode Baking Temperature on Anode Properties 101 B. Samanos and C. Dreyer Use of Under-Calcined Coke for the Production of Low Reactivity Anodes 109 J. Lhuissier, L. Bezamanifary, M. Gendre, and M. Chollier Anode Filler Coke Porosity Studies 114 P. Rhedey Desulphurization and Its Effect on Calcined Coke Properties 119 R. Garbarino and R. Tonti Influence of Petroleum Coke Sulphur Content on the Sodium Sensitivity of Carbon Anodes 123 S. Hume, W. Fischer, R. Perruchoud, J. Metson, and R. Baker A Review of Coke and Anode Desulfurization 130 L. Edwards, K. Neyrey, and L. Lossius Coke and Anode Desulfurization Studies 136 L. Lossius, K. Neyrey, and L. Edwards Minimizing Impact of Low Sulfur Coke on Anode Quality 142 A. Adams, R. Cahill, Y. Belzile, K. Cantin, and M. Gendron Evaluating Calcined Coke for Aluminum Smelting by Bulk Density 148 D. Belitskus Maintaining Consistent Anode Density Using Varying Carbon Raw Materials 156 S. Wilkening Coke Blending and Fines Circuit Targeting at the Alcoa Deschambault Smelter 163 M. Gendron, S. Whelan, and K. Cantin Raw Materials: Pitch Worldwide Pitch Quality for Prebaked Anodes 167 R. Perruchoud, M. Meier, and W. Fischer Coal Tar Pitch - Past, Present, and Future 177 J. Baron, S. McKinney, and R. Wombles Electrode Binder Pyrolysis and Bond-Coke Microstructure 182 S. Jones and R. Hildebrandt Binder for the Ideal Anode Carbon 198 S. Jones and E. Bart Binding Characteristics of Coal Tar Pitches for Prebaked Anode Mix - Choice Criteria: LRF Report 830 215 J. Pinoir and P. Hyvernat The Influence of Solid Particles in Pitch on the Preparation and Baking of the Carbon Blocks 225 G. Romovacek Performance of Binder Pitches With Decreased QI-Content in Anode Making: Formation - Nature - Properties and Substitution of Quinoline Insolubles 232 A. Alscher, R. Wildforster, and J. Sharp Temperature Stability of Soderberg Anode Pitch 239 M. Sorlie Developing Coal Tar/Petroleum Pitches 246 R. Wombles and M. Kiser Raw Materials: Spent Carbon Investigation of the Quality of Recycled Anode Butts 251 W. Schmidt-Hatting, A. Kooijman, and R. Perruchoud Interdependence Between Properties of Anode Butts and Quality of Prebaked Anodes 267 W. Fischer and R. Perruchoud Raw Material and Anode Characterization New Methods for Testing Raw Materials for Anode Carbon Paste 271 O. Bowitz, T. Eftestol, and R. Selvik Standardization of a Calcined Coke Bulk Density Test 281 D. Belitskus Reactivity Testing of Anode Carbon Materials 290 G. Houston and H. Oye Characterization of Prebaked Anode Carbon by Mechanical and Thermal Properties 298 J. Brown and P. Rhedey Green Anode Production Aggregate Optimization Using a Y-Blender 307 R. Peterson Soderberg Paste. Effect of Fine Fraction Variations 313 P. Stokka and I. Skogland Finer Fines in Anode Formulation 318 F. Figueiredo, C. Cato, A. Nascimento, A. Marques, and P. Miotto Process Adaptations for Finer Dust Formulations: Mixing and Forming 322 K. Hulse, R. Perruchoud, W. Fischer, and B. Welch Effects of Mixing Variables and Mold Temperature on Prebaked Anode Quality 328 D. Belitskus Improving Anode Quality by Separately Optimising Mixing and Compacting Temperature 333 B. Coste Vibration Forming of Carbon Blocks 339 E. Sandvik, R. Blindheim, and H. Bo Cooling of Green Anodes After Forming 351 W. Fischer, M. Meier, and M. Lustenberger Recent Improvement in Paste Plant Design: Industrial Application and Results 358 C. Vanvoren Going Beyond SPC - Why We Need Statistical Thinking in Operations Such as Carbon Plants 365 K. Sinclair and B. Sadler Properties and Behaviour of Green Anodes 371 S. Wilkening Potentialities in the Paste Plant 378 S. Wilkening Baked Anode Production Mathematical Simulation of a Horizontal Flue Ring Furnace 386 R. Bui, E. Dernedde, A. Charette, and T. Bourgeois Flue Gas Management 390 W. Leisenberg Safe Operation of Anode Baking Furnaces 396 I. Holden, O. Saeter, F. Aune, and T. Naterstad Anode Baking: The Underestimated Human Aspect 403 F. Keller, P. Sulger, and W. Fischer Specific Energy Consumption in Anode Bake Furnaces 408 F. Keller, P. Sulger, M. Meier, D. Severo, and V. Gusberti Evaluation of the Uniformity of Baking in Horizontal and Vertical Flue Ring Furnaces 414 D. Holdner, S. Nadkarni, and D. DuTremblay Measurement and Control of the Calcining Level in Anode Baking Furnaces 418 T. Foosnaes, N. Kulset, H. Linga, G. Naeumann, and A. Werge-Olsen The Equivalent Temperature Method for Measuring the Baking Level of Anodes 422 L. Lossius, I. Holden, and H. Linga Baking Parameters and the Resulting Anode Quality 427 W. Fischer, F. Keller, R. Perruchoud, and S. Oderbolz Anode Desulphurization on Baking 434 M. Vogt, K. Ries, and M. Smith The Effect of Prebake Anode Baking Temperature on Potroom Performance 444 G. Bain, J. Pruneau, and J. Williams Influence of Baking Temperature and Anode Effects Upon Carbon Sloughing 450 E. Cutshall and V. Bullough Influence on Anode Baking Temperature and Current Density Upon Carbon Sloughing 469 E. Cutshall Anode Reactivity Influence of the Baking Process 478 C. Dreyer Modern Anode Baking Furnace Developments 486 F. Keller and J. Disselhorst Strategies for the Revision of Bake Furnaces 492 F. Keller Rodded Anode Production and Anode Design Temperature and Voltage Measurements in Hall Cell Anodes 500 R. Peterson Studies of Stub to Carbon Voltage 510 R. Peterson Factors in the Design of Reduction Cell Anodes 516 D. Brooks and V. Bullough Anode Cast Iron Thickness Optimization 524 M. Ohlswager, G. Goeres, and R. Peterson Drilling of Stub Holes in Prebaked Anodes 529 B. Aga, I. Holden, H. Linga, and K. Solbu Problems of the Stub-Anode Connection 534 S. Wilkening and J. Cote Challenges in Stub Hole Optimisation of Cast Iron Rodded Anodes 543 D. Richard, P. Goulet, O. Trempe, M. Dupuis, and M. Fafard Real Time Temperature Distribution during Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air Gap Measurements of a Hall- Heroult Cell Anode 549 O. Trempe, D. Larouche, D. Ziegler, M. Guillot, and M. Fafard Effects of Carbonaceous Rodding Mix Formulation on Steel-Carbon Contact Resistance 555 P. Rhedey and L. Castonguay Anode Performance: Reactivity Fundamentals Anode Carbon Reactivity 564 S. Jones and R. Hildebrandt Studies on Anode Reactivity to Oxidant Gases 580 J. Rey Boero Some Practical Consequences of Analyses of the Carboxy and Airburn Reactions of Anode Carbons 589 N. Bird, B. McEnaney, and B. Sadler A Porosimetric Study of Sub-Surface Carboxy Oxidation in Anodes 594 B. Sadler and S. Algie Studies of the Impact of Vanadium and Sodium on the Air Reactivity of Coke and Anodes 606 J. Rolle and Y. Hoang Anode Performance: Dusting A Review of Factors Affecting Carbon Anode Consumption in the Electrolytic Production of Aluminum 611 P. Rhedey Reflections on the Carbon Consumption of Prebaked Anodes 623 S. Wilkening Anode Dusting in Hall-Heroult Cells 633 T. Foosnaes, T. Naterstad, M. Bruheim, and K. Grjotheim The Influence of Low Current Densities on Anode Performance 643 S. Hume, M. Utley, B. Welch, and R. Perruchoud Dust Generation and Accumulation for Changing Anode Quality and Cell Parameters 649 R. Perruchoud, K. Hulse, W. Fischer, and W. Schmidt-Hatting Anode Dusting from a Potroom Perspective at Nordural and Correlation with Anode Properties 657 H. Gudmundsson The Reduction in Anode Airburn with Protective Covers 663 A. Fitchett, D. Morgan, and B. Welch Reactivity and Electrolytic Consumption of Anode Carbon with Various Additives 667 T. Muftuo-lu and H. Oye Bath Impregnation of Carbon Anodes 673 R. Perruchoud, M. Meier, and W. Fischer Anode Performance: Thermal Shock Effects of Coke and Formulation Variables on Cracking of Bench Scale Prebaked Anode Specimens 680 D. Belitskus Thermal Shock in Anodes for the Electrolytic Production of Aluminium 687 E. Kummer and W. Schmidt-Hatting Operating Parameters Affecting Thermal Shock Cracking of Anodes in the Valco Smelter 694 N. Ambenne and K. Ries Thermal Shock of Anodes - A Solved Problem? 700 M. Meier, W. Fischer, R. Perruchoud, and L. Gauckler Extrinsic and Intrinsic Aspects of Anode Cracking 710 T. Liu, L. Edwards, C. Hughes, B. Mason, and R. McMellon An Approach for a Complete Evaluation of Resistance to Thermal Shock (Part 1): Applying to the Case of Anodes and Cathodes 717 C. Dreyer and B. Samanos Finite Element Modelling of Thermal Stress in Anodes 723 P. Cook Recommended Reading 731 Part 2: Hall-Heroult Cell Cathodes Section Introduction 739 Cell Lining: Cathodes ISO Standards for Testing of Cathode Materials 741 H. Oye Laboratory Testing of Carbon Cathode Materials at Operational Temperatures 747 M. Sorlie and H. Oye Structural Changes in Carbon by Heat Treatment 754 S. Brandtzaeg, H. Linga, and H. Oye Low Electrical Resistivity and High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Products: The Solution for Cell Lining 762 D. Dumas and C. Michel Aluminium Pechiney Experience with Graphitized Cathode Blocks 773 D. Lombard, T. Beheregaray, B. Feve, and J. Jolas Some Experiments in Cathode Carbon 779 S. Wilkening How to Improve the Pig Iron Sealing of Metallic Bars in Cathode Carbon Blocks 787 I. Letizia, C. Bizzarri, and M. Lezzerini Stress Analysis of Cathode Bottom Blocks 793 B. Larsen and M. Sorlie Experimental Comparison of Cathode Rodding Practices 799 L. Caruso, K. Rye, and M. Sorlie Cell Lining: Ramming Paste Compaction of Room Temperature Ramming Paste 804 M. Sorlie and H. Oye Densification of Ramming Paste in Cathodes 814 M. Sorlie, B. Faaness , and J. Belmonte Investigation into the Expansion/Contraction Behaviour of Cold Ramming Pastes during Baking Using a Horizontal Dilatometer Method 821 B. Hocking Ramming Paste Related Failures in Cathode Linings 827 B. Faaness, H. Gran, M. Sorlie, and H. Oye Cell Lining: Refractories Corrosion and Behaviour of Fireclay Bricks of Varying Chemical Composition Used in the Bottom Lining of Reduction Cells 834 F. Brunk Experiences with Dry Barrier Powder Materials in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 840 O.-J. Siljan, O. Junge, T. Svendsen, and K. Thovsen Cathode Refractory Materials for Aluminium Reduction Cells 849 C. Schoning, T. Grande, and O. Siljan Evaluation of Silicon Carbide Bricks 857 A. Tabereaux and A. Fickel Quality Evaluation of Nitride Bonded Silicon Carbide Sidelining Materials 866 E. Skybakmoen, L. Stoen, J. Kvello, and O. Darell SiC in Electrolysis Pots: An Update 872 R. Pawlek Thermal Insulation Materials for Reduction Cell Cathodes 876 A. Tabereaux Cathode Performance: Failure Modes Use of Cell Autopsy to Diagnose Potlining Problems 888 R. Jeltsch Processes Occurring in the Carbon Lining of an Aluminum Reduction Cell 894 J. Waddington A Study of Some Aspects of the Influence of Cell Operation on Cathode Life 903 C. Clelland, J. Keniry, and B. Welch Potlining Failure Modes 909 M. Dell Design of Highly Reliable Pot Linings 914 J. Peyneau Early Failure Mechanisms in Aluminium Cell Cathodes 921 M., J. Hvistendahl, and H. Oye A Comparative Examination of Ageing of Cathodes: Amorphous Versus Graphitic Type 931 E. Berhauser and J. Mittag Property Changes of Cathode Lining Materials during Cell Operation 936 M. Sorlie, H. Gran, and H. Oye Cathode Performance: Chemical Reactions Reaction Between Carbon Lining and Hall Bath 946 M. Dell Penetration of Sodium and Bath Constituents into Cathode Carbon Materials Used in Industrial Cells 953 C. Krohn, M. Sorlie, and H. Oye Chemical Resistance of Cathode Carbon Materials during Electrolysis 960 M. Sorlie and H. Oye The Effect of Current Density on Cathode Expansion during Start-Up 966 A. Ratvik, A. Store, A. Solheim, and T. Foosnaes Reactions in the Bottom Lining of Aluminium Reduction Cells 972 A. Solheim, C. Schoning, and E. Skybakmoen Chemical Degradation Map for Sodium Attack in Refractory Linings 978 K. Tschope, J. Rutlin, T. Grande Cathode Performance: Erosion Physical and Chemical Wear of Carbon Cathode Materials 984 X. Liao and H. Oye Carbon Cathode Corrosion by Aluminium Carbide Formation in Cryolitic Melts 992 X. Liao and H. Oye Erosion of Cathode Blocks in 180 kA Prebake Cells 999 A. Tabereaux, J. Brown, I. Eldridge, and T. Alcorn Graphite Cathode Wear Study at Alouette 1005 P. Reny and S. Wilkening Electrolytic Degradation within Cathode Materials 1011 P. Rafiei, F. Hiltmann, M. Hyland, B. James, and B. Welch Influence of Internal Cathode Structure on Behavior during Electrolysis Part II: Porosity and Wear Mechanisms in Graphitized Cathode Materials 1017 P. Patel, M. Hyland, and F. Hiltmann Influence of Internal Cathode Structure on Behavior during Electrolysis Part III: Wear Behavior in Graphitic Materials 1023 P. Patel, M. Hyland, and F. Hiltmann Spent Pot Lining Formation and Distribution of Cyanide in the Lining of Aluminum Reduction Cells 1029 R. Peterson, L. Blayden, and E. Martin Potlining Flux in Making Steel 1037 D. Augood, R. Schlager, and P. Belding Thermal Treatment of Spent Potliner in a Rotary Kiln 1044 D. Brooks, E. Cutshall, D. Banker, and D. Strahan Treatment and Reuse of Spent Pot Lining, an Industrial Application in a Cement Kiln 1049 P. Personnet Co-Processing at Cement Plant of Spent Potlining from the Aluminum Industry 1057 V. Gomes, P. Drumond, J. Neto, and A. Lira Development Status of Processing Technology for Spent Potlining in China 1064 W. Li and X. Chen Recommended Reading 1067 Part 3: Inert Anodes and Wettable Cathodes Section Introduction 1071 Inert Anodes Solubilities of Oxides for Inert Anodes in Cryolite-Based Melts 1073 D. DeYoung Corrosion and Passivation of Cermet Inert Anodes in Cryolite-Type Electrolytes 1082 G. Tarcy Testing of Cerium Oxide Coated Cermet Anodes in a Laboratory Cell 1094 J. Gregg, M. Frederick, H. King, and A. Vaccaro A Non-Consumable Metal Anode for Production of Aluminum with Low Temperature Fluoride Melts 1104 T. Beck The Behaviour of Nickel Ferrite Cermet Materials as Inert Anodes 1110 E. Olsen and J. Thonstad Tin Dioxide-Based Ceramics as Inert Anodes for Aluminium Smelting: A Laboratory Study 1119 A. Vecchio-Sadus, D. Constable, R. Dorin, E. Frazer, I. Fernandez, G. Neal, S. Lathabai, and M. Trigg Inert Anodes: An Update 1126 R. Pawlek Wettable Cathodes The Application of the Refractory Carbides and Borides to Aluminum Reduction Cells 1134 C. Ransley Use of TiB2 Cathode Material: Application and Benefits in Conventional VSS Cells 1145 L. Boxall, A. Cooke, and H. Hayden Use of TiB2 Cathode Material: Demonstrated Energy Conservation in VSS Cells 1153 A. Cooke and W. Buchta A Review of RHM Cathode Development 1164 C. McMinn Properties of a Colloidal Alumina-Bonded TiB2 Coating on Cathode Carbon Materials 1171 H. Oye, V. de Nora, J. Duruz, and G. Johnston Sodium and Bath Penetration into TiB2-Carbon Cathodes during Laboratory Aluminium Electrolysis 1179 J. Xue and H. Oye Wettable Cathodes: An Update 1185 R. Pawlek Recommended Reading 1191 Author Index. 1193

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118636633
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1222
  • ID: 9781118636633
  • weight: 3120
  • ISBN10: 1118636635
  • edition: Volume 4

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