Essential Readings in Light Metals: Alumina and Bauxite (Volume 1)

Essential Readings in Light Metals: Alumina and Bauxite (Volume 1)

By: Benny Raahauge (editor), Don Donaldson (editor)Hardback

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ONE OF A FOUR-BOOK COLLECTION SPOTLIGHTING CLASSIC ARTICLES Five decades of landmark original research findings and reviews Highlighting some of the most important findings reported over the past five decades, this volume features some of the best technical papers published on alumina and bauxite from 1963 to 2011. Papers have been divided into thirteen subject sections for ease of access. Each section has a brief introduction and a list of recommended articles for researchers interested in exploring each subject in greater depth. Only about fifteen percent of the alumina and bauxite papers ever published in Light Metals were chosen for this volume. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find landmark original research findings and expert reviews summarizing current thinking on key topics at the time of publication. From basic research to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent our body of knowledge in alumina and bauxite. Students, scientists, and engineers should turn to this volume to discover the historical development of alumina and bauxite research as well as the current state of the science and the technology. Moreover, the papers published in this volume will serve as a springboard for future research and discoveries.

About Author

DON DONALDSON, BS, has worked in all facets of the alumina industry for over sixty years. He was employed by Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation for thirty-four years and he continued working for twenty-seven years as an independent consultant. Mr. Donaldson has written several publications and holds a number of patents in alumina technology. BENNY E. RAAHAUGE, MSc, is General Manager, Pyro & Alumina Technology for FLSmidth in Denmark. Prior to joining FLSmidth in 1974, he worked as plant engineer for the Danish Sugar Factories. Mr. Raahauge has more than thirty-six years of experience in the calcination of alumina hydrate to alumina, including research and development, process development and design, engineering, and dynamic simulation of gas suspension calciner.


Preface xvii Lead Editors xxi Editorial Team xxiii Part 1: Bauxite Section Introduction 1 L. Perander Bauxite -Its Technical and Economical History During the Last Hundred Years 3 J. Regnier Bauxite Mineralogy 21 H Hose The Classification of Bauxites from the Bayer Plant Standpoint 30 V. Hill and R. Robson Effect of Bauxite Microstracture on Beneficiation and Processing 37 K. Solymar, F. Madai, and D. Papanastassiou Chinese Bauxite and Its Influences on Alumina Production in China 43 G. Songqing Impact of Jamaican Bauxite Mineralogy on Plant Operations 48 D. Lawson, A. Rijkeboer, L. Andermann Jr., and A. Mooney Sustainable Bauxite Mining: A Global Perspective 54 MI, BAC, and C. Wagner Bauxite Mining Sustainability 60 P.Atkins, C. Bayliss, and S. Ward Bauxite Mine Rehabilitation Programs: A Progress Report 66 P. Atkins Cross-Country Bauxite Slurry Transportation 70 R. Gandhi, J. Norwood, and Y. Che Design and Operation of the World's First Long Distance Bauxite Slurry Pipeline 75 PSI, R. Gandhi, M. Weston, M. Talavera, CVRD, G. Brittes, and E. Barbosa Recommended Reading 81 Part 2: Bayer Process Section Introduction 83 F. Williams Bayer Process Design A Hundred Years of the Bayer Process for Alumina Production 85 F. Habashi The Alumina Industry Technology Roadmap 94 I. Anich, T. Bagshaw, N. Margolis, anclM. Skillingberg Basic Principles of Bayer Process Design 100 A. Adamson, E. Bloore, and A. Carr Chemical Reaction Engineering in the Bayer Process 118 D. Thomas and B. Pei The Effect of Silica, Temperature, Velocity and Particulates on Heat Transfer to Spent Bayer Liquor 124 A. Duncan, M. Groemping, B. Welch, and H. Muller-Steinhagen Physical Data The Effect of Four Common Bayer Liquor Impurities on Alumina Solubility 132 R. Bird, H. Vance, and C. Fuhrman Autoprecipitation of Gibbsite andBoehmite 141 T. Harato, T. Ishida, and K. Yamada Equilibrium Composition of Sodium Aluminate Liquors 148 B. McCoy andJ. Dewey Boiling Point Rise of Bayer Plant Liquors 155 J. Dewey Viscosity, Specific Gravity, and Equilibrium Concentration of Sodium Aluminate Solutions 162 T. Ikkatai and N. Okada The Heat of Dissolution of Gibbsite at Bayer Digestion Temperatures 170 J. Langa Reactions of Iron Minerals in Sodium Aluminate Solutions 176 P. Basu Identification of Organics in Bayer Liquor 184 G. Lever Behavior of Radioactive Elements (Uranium and Thorium) in Bayer Process 191 C. Sato, S. Kazama, A. Sakamoto, and K. Hirayanagi Solubility of Bayer Liquor Impurities in Evaporative Crystallization 198 E. Schiller Calcium Chemistry Reaction of Lime in Sodium Aluminate Liquors 202 N. Chaplin Some Aspects of Calcium Chemistry in the Bayer Process 210 S. Rosenberg, D. Wilson, and C. Heath Chemistry of Bayer Liquor Causticization 217 R. Young The Equilibrium Approach to Causticization for Optimizing Liquor Causticity 228 G. Roach Layered Double Hydroxides in the Bayer Process: Past, Present, and Future 235 S. Rosenberg and L. Armstrong Silica Chemistry Dissolution Kinetics of Kaolin in Caustic Liquors 240 G. Roach and A. White Dissolution Rate of Quartz and the Rate of Desilication in the Bayer Liquor 247 T. Oku and K. Yamada Mathematical Modeling of the Kinetics of Gibbsite Extraction and Kaolinite Dissolution/Desilication in the Bayer Process 255 N. Raghavan and G. Fulford Autoclave Desilication of Digested Bauxite Slurry in The Flashing Circuit 263 A. Damaskin, A. Suss, A. Panov, I. Paromova, N. Kuznetzova, N. Kutkova, O. Shipova, and A. Kuvyrkina Organic Removal Characterization of Organics in Bayer Liquor 268 J. Guthrie, P. The, and W. Imbrogno Review of Bayer Organics-Oxalate Control Processes 278 B. Gnyra and G. Lever Sizing an Organic Control System for the Bayer Process 284 J. Pulpeiro, L. Fleming, B. Hiscox, J. Fenger, and B. Raahauge Organic Control Technologies in Bayer Process 291 G. Soucy, J. Larocque, and G. Forte Removal of HMW Organic Compounds by Partial Wet Oxidation 297 B. Foster andM. Roberson Removal of Organic Carbon from Bayer Liquor by Wet Oxidation in Tube Digesters 304 W. Arnswald, H Kaltenberg, and E. Guhl A Year of Operation of the Solid-Liquid Calcination (SLC) Process 309 J. Pulpeiro, M. Gayol, H. Boily, A. Carruthers, B. Hiscox, J. Fenger, andB. Raahauge A Thermodynamically Based Model for Oxalate Solubility in Bayer Liquor 314 K Beckham and S. Grocott Oxalate Removal by Occlusion in Hydrate 320 V. Esquerre, P. Clerin, and B. Cristol Recommended Reading 325 Part 3: Digestion Section Introduction 329 D. Donaldson Bayer Digestion and Predigestion Desilication Reactor Design 331 J. Kotte Digester Design Using CFD 350 J. Woloshyn, L. Oshinowo, anclJ. Rosten Preheaters and Digesters in the Bayer Digestion Process 356 G. Songquing and Y. Zhonglin The Improved Low Temperature Digestion (ILTD) Process: An Economic and Environmentally Sustainable Way of Processing Gibbsitic Bauxites 362 G. Banvolgyi and P. Siklosi New Technology for Digestion of Bauxites 371 R. Kelly, M. Edwards, D. Deboer, and P. Mclntosh Boehmitic Reversion in a Double Digestion Process on a Bauxite Containing Trihydrate and Monohydrate 377 J. Lamerant and Y. Perret Mixer Design Optimization for High Solids Contents Media: Methodology and Application to the Pechiney's High Density Predesilication Process 381 Robin Industries, F. Bouquet Mechano-Activated Bauxite Behaviour 387 S. Fortin and G. Forte Processing of Diaspore Bauxites 393 G. Wargalla and W. Brandt On-Line Multivariable Control for Digestion A/C Analysis 402 M. Hardin Recommended Reading 409 Part 4: Clarification, Red Mud Washing, and Liquor Filtration Section Introduction 411 T. Laros Selection of Sedimentation Equipment for the Bayer Process: An Overview of Past and Present Technology 413 TMS, T. Laros, and F. Baczek Effect of Particle Characteristics on the Solids Density of Bayer Mud Slurries 417 G. Roach, E. Jamieson, N. Pearson, A. Yu Red Mud Flocculants Used in the Bayer Process 425 F. Ballentine, M. Lewellyn, and S. Moffatt Development of New Bayer Process Flocculants 431 D. Spitzer, A. Rothenberg, H. Heitner, M. Lewellyn, L. Laviolette, T. Foster, and P. Avotins Effects of Temperature and Method of Solution Preparation on the Performance of a Typical Red Mud Flocculent 436 P. Ferland, J. Malito, and E. Phillips Advanced Filtration Methods for Pregnant Liquor Purification 444 R. Bott, T. Langeloh, andJ. Hahn Impact of Excess Synthetic Flocculent on Security Filtration 449 J. Rousseaux and P. Ferland Hydroseparators, Hydrocyclones and Classifiers as Applied in the Bayer Process for Degritting (Desanding) of Digested Bauxite, and for Sand Washing to Recover Soda 454 F. Krause, N. Beaton, and K. Gruner Development of a Self-Sluicing Pressure Leaf Filter 461 B. Cousineau andJ. Lumsden Comparison of the Rheology of Bauxite Residue Suspensions 466 N. Pashias, D. Boger, J. Summers, and D. Glenister Pressure Decantation at Gramercy Alumina 470 P. Landry and H. Edwards The Manufacture of Tricalcium Aluminate 476 L. Andermann Jr. and G. Pollet Recommended Reading 483 Part 5: Precipitation, Classification, and Seed Filtration Section Introduction 485 C. Misra Precipitation Technology 487 J. Anjier andM. Roberson Some Studies in Alumina Trihydrate Precipitation Kinetics 492 W. King Physical Chemistry Considerations in Aluminum Hydroxide Precipitation 499 M. Chaubal Modeling Bayer Precipitation with Agglomeration 509 D. Ilievski and E. White Gibbsite Growth History: Revelations of a New Scanning Electron Microscope Technique 516 G. Roach, J. Cornell, and B. Griffin Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process 522 R. Hond Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process - Past, Present and Prospects 528 R. Hond, I. Hiralal, and A. Rijkeboer Improvements by the New Alusuisse Process for Producing Coarse Aluminum Hydrate in the Bayer Process 534 O. Tschamper Agitation Effects in Precipitation 541 C. Misra Hydrodynamics Effect on Precipitation Yield 550 B. Cristol, Y. Perret, and H. Santos-Cottin Hydrodynamics of Hydrate Slurries inPrecipitators: Application to Precipitators Design 559 Y. Perret Alumina Crystallizer Mixing Using CFD 563 J. Perron andJ. Larocque Particle Strength of Bayer Hydrate 570 J. Anjier and D. Marten The Effect of Glucoisosaccharinate on the Bayer Precipitation of Alumina Tnhydrate 576 P. The Influence of Mineral and Organic Impurities on the Alumina Trihydrate Precipitation Yield in the Bayer Process 582 A. Lectard and F. Nicolas Factors Affecting Residual NA20 in Precipitation Products 592 J. Sang Soda Incorporation During Hydrate Precipitation 602 C. Vernon, J. Loh, D. Lau, and A. Stanley A Method for Evaluating Seed Balance Parameters in Alumina Refinery Seed Classifications Systems 608 W. Bounds Jr. Utilization of Horizontal Belt Filters for Washing Fine Alumina Seed and Kiln Feed Product 615 R. Crawford, D. Dahlstrom, and G. Minear Recommended Reading 621 Part 6: Product Hydrate Filtration and Alumina Production by Calcination Section Introduction 623 B. Raahauge The World's Largest Hydrate Pan Filter: Engineering Improvements and Experiences 625 B. Peter sen, M. Bach, andR. Arpe Utilization of Steam Hoods in Horizontal Table Filters 630 H. Serres and J. Sorrentino Conversion of Conventional Rotary Kiln into Effective Sandy Alumina Calciner 636 M. Ishihara, T. Hirano, and H. Yajima Application of Circulating Fluid Bed Calcinaters in Large-size Alumina Plants 641 L. Reh and H. Schmidt Alumina Calcination in the Fluid-Flash Calciner 648 W. Fish Industrial Prospects and Operational Experience with 32 Mtpd Stationary Alumina Calciner 653 B. Raahauge and J. Nickelsen Experience with 3 X 4500 TPD Gas Suspension Calciners (GSC) for Alumina 664 J. Fenger, B. Raahauge, and C. Wind Alcoa Pressure Calcination Process for Alumina 669 S. Sucech and C. Misra Recommended Reading 675 Part 7: Water, Evaporation, and Energy Section Introduction 677 F. Williams Alumina Refinery Wastewater Management: When Zero Discharge Just Isn't Feasible 679 L. Martin and S. Howard Wastewater Treatment Methods 685 D. Smith, F. Williams, and S. Moffatt The Need for Energy Efficiency in Bayer Refining 691 L. Henrickson Prediction of Heat Exchanger -Heat Transfer Coefficient Decay Due to Fouling 697 G. O'Neill Heat Transfer in the Bayer Process 705 D. Thomas Perspective on Bayer Process Energy 711 D. Donaldson Recommended Reading 715 Part 8: Alumina Quality Section Introduction 717 B. Raahauge Dehydration Products of Gibbsite by Rotary Kiln and Stational Calciner 719 K. Yamada, T. Harato, S. Hamano, and K. Horinouchi Morphological Analysis of Alumina and Its Trihydrate 727 H. Hsieh Factors Affecting the Attrition Strength of Alumina Products 740 J. Sang The Generation of Fines Due to Heating of Alumina Trihydrate 747 J. Zwicker Development of Particle Breakdown and Alumina Strength During Calcination 757 S. Wind, C. Jensen-Holm, and B. Raahauge Measurement of Sandy Alumina Dustiness 765 S. Perra Alumina Handling Dustiness 774 M. Authier-Martin The Influence of Alumina Properties on Its Dissolution in Smelting Electrolyte 783 A. Bagshaw and B. Welch The Influence of Physical and Chemical Properties of Alumina on Hydrogen Fluoride Absorption 788 J. Coyne, M. Wainwright, M. Brungs, and A. Bagshaw SGA Requirements in Coming Years 793 S. Lindsay Recommended Reading 799 Part 9: Health, Safety, and Plant Maintenance Section Introduction 801 D. Donaldson Application of Operation Integrity Management in the Alumina Industry 803 C. Suarez, D. Welshons, J. McNerney, andJ. Webb Management Methodology for Pressure Equipment 808 P. Bletchly The Design of Pressure Safety Systems in the Alumina Industry 817 B. Haneman Inspection Techniques for Digestion Pressure Relief System 823 W. Harrington, G. Harrell, and B. Cohea Jr. Benefits of the Utilization of Cleaning Liquor in Red Side of CVG-Bauxllum 828 R. Galarraga andR. Diaz MAX HT Sodalite Scale Inhibitor: Plant Experience and Impact on the Process 832 D. Spitzer, O. Chamberlain, C. Franz, M. Lewellyn, and Q. Dai Recommended Reading 839 Part 10: Process Control/Simulation Section Introduction 841 D. Donaldson Modern Control Instrumentation and Process Management in Bayer Plants 843 P. Mclntosh and E. Barker Process Control in Alumina Refining, Review and Prospects 849 J. Riffaud Development of Automatic Control of Bayer Plant Digestion 852 J. Riffaud Aspen Modeling of the Bayer Process 860 J. Langa, T. Russell, G. O'Neill, P. Gacka, V. Shah, J. Stephenson, andJ. Snyder Bayer Digester Optimization Studies Using Computer Techniques 870 J. Kotte and V. Schleider Equations for Calculating Recovery of Soluble Values in a Countercurrent Decantation Washing System 879 H. Scandrett Simulation and Development of Internal Model Control Applications in the Bayer Process 885 P. Colombe, R. Dablainville, andJ. Vacarisas Dynamic Modeling of Yield and Particle Size Distribution in Continuous Bayer Precipitation 891 J. Stephenson and C. Kapraun Recommended Reading 899 Part 11: Red Mud Disposal and Other Environmental Concerns Section Introduction 901 L. Perander Opportunities for Improved Environmental Control in the Alumina Industry 903 R. Mimna, J. Kildea, E. Phillips, W. Carlson, B. Keiser, andJ. Meier Ferrosilt (Red Mud): Geotechnical Properties and Soil Mechanical Considerations 909 F. Jenny Correlation of Red Mud Consolidation with Its Soil Properties 915 J. Stinson Mobility in Mud 922 D. Morin Developments in the Disposal of Residue from the Alumina Refining Industry 927 D. Cooling Thickened Tailing Disposal in Any Topography 933 E. Robinsky Solar Drying of Red Mud 938 J. Chandler Red Mud Stacking 944 M. Belanger Proposed Mechanism for the Formation of Dust Horizons on Bauxite Residue Disposal Area 951 C. Klauber, N. Harwood, R. Hockridge, and C. Middleton Induction of Biological Activity in Bauxite Residue 957 F. Williams andM. Hamdy The Conversion and Sustainable Use of Alumina Refinery Residues: Global Solution Examples 965 L. Fergusson Recommended Reading 973 Part 12: Alternative Processes and Raw Materials Section Introduction 975 L. Perander Alumina Production by the Pedersen Process: History and Future 977 J. Miller and A. Irgens Efficiency ofNepheline Ore Processing for Alumina Production 983 B. Arlyuk, D. Sc, and A. Pivnev A Technological Comparison of Six Processes for the Production of Reduction-Grade Alumina from Non-Bauxitic Raw Materials 998 K. Bengston The Comparative Economics of Producing Alumina from U.S. Non-Bauxitic Ores 1031 R. Nunn, P. Chuberka, L. Malm, A. San Jose Recovery of Alumina from Non-Bauxite Aluminum-Bearing Raw Materials 1057 J. Cohen and H. Mercier Alumina Extraction from a Pennsylvania Diaspore Clay by an Ammonium Sulfate Process 1065 J. Fetterman and S. Sun Alumina From Clay: A Nitric Acid Process 1074 J. Dewey The Ammonoalunite Process for Production of Alumina From Clay 1082 R. Bartlett, R. Wesely, and T. Bolles Options in the HC1 Process for the Production of Alumina from Clay 1089 D. Shanks, D. Thompson, R. Arington, G. Dan, andJ. Eisele The Leaching of Aluminium in Spanish Clays, Coal Mining Wastes and Coal Fly Ashes by Sulphuric Acid 1098 A. Fernandez, J. Ibanez, M. Llavona, and R. Zapico Recommended Reading 1109 Part 13: Non-Metallurgical Uses of Bauxite, Hydrate, and Alumina Section Introduction 1111 T. Laros Non-Metallurgical Use of Alumina and Bauxite 1113 W. Sleppy, A. Pearson, C. Misra, and G. MacZura The Grafting of Industrial Chemicals Operations onto the Bayer Process 1121 L. Chin On Alumina Powders for Ceramics 1124 Y. Oda, H. Okamoto, and S. Shibusawa Development of Alumina and Silica Based Products in Hungary 1129 G. Baksa, G. Szalay, and F. Vallo The Use of Bayer Alumina Fines for Other Industrial Purposes 1137 P. Garcia, R. Zapico, J. Ayala, andJ. Sancho Aluminas in Air Pollution Control 1144 J. Murphy Aluminium Fluoride Synthesis in Circulating Fluidbeds 1158 E. Bohm and L. Plass Recommended Reading 1165 Author Index 1167

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118636640
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1188
  • ID: 9781118636640
  • weight: 2912
  • ISBN10: 1118636643
  • edition: Volume 1

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