Essential Readings in Light Metals: Aluminum Reduction Technology (Volume 2)

Essential Readings in Light Metals: Aluminum Reduction Technology (Volume 2)

By: Marc Dupuis (editor), Geoff Bearne (editor), Gary Tarcy (editor)Hardback

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ONE OF A FOUR-BOOK COLLECTION SPOTLIGHTING CLASSIC ARTICLES Landmark research findings and reviews in aluminum reduction technology Highlighting some of the most important findings and insights reported over the past five decades, this volume features many of the best original research papers and reviews on aluminum reduction technology published from 1963 to 2011. Papers have been organized into seven themes: 1. Fundamentals 2. Modeling 3. Design 4. Operations 5. Control 6. Environmental 7. Alternative processes The first six themes deal with conventional Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction technology, whereas the last theme features papers dedicated to nonconventional processes. Each section begins with a brief introduction and ends with a list of recommended articles for further reading, enabling researchers to explore each subject in greater depth. The papers for this volume were selected from among some 1,500 Light Metals articles. Selection was based on a rigorous review process. Among the papers, readers will find breakthroughs in science as well as papers that have had a major impact on technology. In addition, there are expert reviews summarizing our understanding of key topics at the time of publication. From basic research to advanced applications, the articles published in this volume collectively represent a complete overview of aluminum reduction technology. It will enable students, scientists, and engineers to trace the history of aluminum reduction technology and bring themselves up to date with the current state of the technology.

About Author

GEOFF BEARNE, BSc, CEng, FIMechE, is General Manager, Technology Delivery Systems, at Rio Tinto Technology & Innovation. He has more than thirty years of experience in the aluminum industry. MARC DUPUIS, PhD, has been a consultant since 1994, when he founded GeniSim, Inc., his own consulting firm. He specializes in the application of mathematical modeling for the aluminum industry. GARY TARCY, MS, is Manager of Smelting R&D at the Alcoa Technical Center in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. He holds twenty-six patents and has published thirty-one papers. He has been twice awarded TMS's Light Metals Award for Best Paper and also won the Australasian Smelting Technology Conference Best Paper Award.


Preface xvii Lead Editors xxi Editorial Team xxiii Part 1: Fundamentals Section Introduction 1 Overview Principles of Aluminum Electrolysis 3 W. Haupin Bath Properties The Solubility of Aluminum in Cryolite Melts 12 K. Yoshida and E. Dewing Viscosity of Molten NaF-AlF3-Al203-CaF2 Mixtures: Selecting and Fitting Models in a Complex System 19 T. Hertzberg, K. Torklep, and H. 0ye On the Solubility of Aluminium Carbide in Cryolitic Melts Influence on Cell Performance 25 R. 0degard, A. Sterten, and J. Thonstad Liquidus Curves for the Cryolite - A1F3 - CaF2 - A1203 System in Aluminum Cell Electrolytes 33 R. Peterson and A. Tabereaux The Solubility of Aluminium in Cryolitic Melts 39 R. 0degard, A. Sterten, and J. Thonstad Dissolved Metals in Cryolitic Melts 49 X. Wang, R. Peterson, and N. Richards Electrical Conductivity of Cryolitic Melts 57 X. Wang, R. Peterson, and A. Tabereaux Electrical Conductivity of Molten Cryolite-Based Mixtures Obtained with a Tube-type Cell Made of Pyrolytic Boron Nitride 65 J. Hives, J. Thonstad, A. Sterten, and P. Fellner Liquidus Temperature and Alumina Solubility in the System Na3-AlF6-AlF3-LiF-CaF2-MgF2 73 A.Solheim, S. Rolseth, E. Skybakmoen, L. Stoen, A. Sterten, and T. Store Unconventional Bath Lithium-Modified Low Ratio Electrolyte Chemistry for Improved Performance in Modern Reduction Cells 83 A. Tabereaux, T.Alcorn, and L. Trembley Production of Aluminum with Low Temperature Fluoride Melts 89 T. Beck Alumina Dissolution The Structure of Alumina Dissolved in Cryolite Melts 96 H. Kvande The Dissolution of Alumina in Cryolite Melts 105 J. Thonstad, A. Solheim, S. Rolseth, and O. Skar Further Studies of Alumina Dissolution Under Conditions Similar to Cell Operation 112 G. Kuschel and B. Welch Anode Effect Mechanism Studies on Anode Effect in Aluminium Electrolysis 119 Q. Zhu-Xian, W. Ching-Bin, and C. Ming-Ji Direct Observation of the Anode Effect by Radiography 127 T. Utigard, J. Toguri, and S. Ip On the Anode Effect in Aluminum Electrolysis 131 J. Thonstad, T. Utigard, and H. Vogt Energy and Voltage Breakdown Anodic Overpotentials in the Electrolysis of Alumina 139 B. Welch and N. Richards Cathode Voltage Loss in Aluminum Smelting Cells 147 W. Haupin Interpreting the Components of Cell Voltage 153 W. Haupin Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Reduction of Alumina 160 W. Haupin and H. Kvande Field Study of the Anodic Overvoltage inPrebaked Anode Cells 166 H. Gudbrandsen, N. Richards, S. Rolseth, and J. Thonstad Current Efficiency Current Efficiency and Alumina Concentration 172 B. Lillebuen and T. Mellerud Continuous Measurement of Current Efficiency, by Mass Spectrometry, on a 280 KA Prototype Cell 177 M. Leroy, T. Pelekis, and J. Jolas The Influence of Dissolved Metals in Cryohtic Melts on Hall Cell Current Inefficiency 181 R. Peterson and X. Wang The Interaction Between Current Efficiency and Energy Balance in Aluminium Reduction Cells 188 F. Stevens, W. Zhang, M. Taylor, and J. Chen A Laboratory Study of Current Efficiency in Cryolitic Melts 195 P. Solli, T. Haarberg, T. Eggen, E. Skybakmoen, and A. Sterten Current Efficiency Studies in a Laboratory Aluminium Cell Using the Oxygen Balance Method 204 M. Dorreen, M. Hyland, and B. Welch Current Efficiency inPrebake and Soderberg Cells 211 G. Tarcy and K. Torklep Physical Properties Bath/Freeze Heat Transfer Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Industrial Application 217 M. Taylor and B. Welch Sludge in Operating Aluminium Smelting Cells 222 P. Geay, B. Welch, and P. Homsi The Behaviour of Phosphorus Impurities in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 229 E. Haugland, G. Haarberg, E. Thisted, and J. Thonstad Cell Studies See-through Hall-Heroult Cell 234 W. Haupin and W. McGrew Metal Pad Velocity Measurements in Prebake and Soderberg Reduction Cells 240 A. Tabereaux and R. Hester Metal Pad Velocity Measurements by the Iron Rod Method 251 B. Bradley, E. Dewing, and J. Rogers On the Bath Flow, Alumina Distribution and Anode Gas Release in Aluminium Cells 257 O. Kobbeltvedt and B. Moxnes Bubble Noise from Soderberg Pots 265 M. Jensen, T. Pedersen, and K. Kalgraf Recommended Reading 269 Part 2: Modeling Section Introduction 273 Thermal Balance Simulation of Thermal, Electric and Chemical Behaviour of an Aluminum Cell on a Digital Computer 275 A. Ek and G. Fladmark Estimation of Frozen Bath Shape in an Aluminum Reduction Cell by Computer Simulation 279 Y. Arita, N. Urata, and H. Ikeuchi A Water-Model Study of the Ledge Heat Transfer in an Aluminium Cell 286 J. Chen, C. Wei, and A. Ackland Computation of Aluminum Reduction Cell Energy Balance Using ANSYS(R) Finite Element Models 294 M. Dupuis Thermo-Electric Design of a 400 kA Cell Using Mathematical Models: A Tutorial 303 M. Dupuis A Modelling Approach to Estimate Bath and Metal Heat Transfer Coefficients 309 D. Severn and V. Gusberti MHD and Stability Computer Model for Magnetic Fields in Electrolytic Cells Including the Effect of Steel Parts 315 T. Sele The Effect of Some Operating Variables on Flow in Aluminum Reduction Cells 322 E. Tarapore Magnetics and Metal Pad Instability 330 N. Urata Stability of Aluminum Cells - A New Approach 336 R. Moreau and D. Ziegler Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic Instabilities in Aluminum Reduction Cells 342 M. Segatz and C. Droste Magnetohydrodynamic Effect of Anode Set Pattern on Cell Performance 352 M. Segatz, C. Droste, and D. Vogelsang Stability of Interfacial Waves in Aluminium Reduction Cells 359 P. Davidson and R. Lindsay Using a Magnetohydrodynamic Model to Analyze Pot Stability in Order to Identify an Abnormal Operating Condition 367 J. Antille and R. von Kaenel Wave Mode Coupling and Instability in the Internal Wave in Aluminum Reduction Cells 373 N. Urata Comparison of Various Methods for Modeling the Metal-Bath Interface 379 D. Severo, V. Gusberti, A. Schneider, E. Pinto, and V. Potocnik Bubbles and Bath Flow Physical Modelling of Bubble Behaviour and Gas Release from Aluminum Reduction Cell Anodes 385 S. Fortin, M. Gerhardt, and A. Gesing Coupled Current Distribution and Convection Simulator for Electrolysis Cells 396 K. Bech, S. Johansen, A. Solheim, and T. Haarberg Effect of the Bubble Growth Mechanism on the Spectrum of Voltage Fluctuations in the Reduction Cell 402 L. Kiss and S. Poncsak Modeling the Bubble Driven Flow in the Electrolyte as a Tool for Slotted Anode Design Improvement 409 D. Severo, V. Gusberti, E. Pinto, and R. Moura Other Planning Smelter Logistics: A Process Modeling Approach 415 I. Eick, D. Vogelsang, and A. Behrens CFD Modeling of the Fjardaal Smelter Potroom Ventilation 421 J. Berkoe, P. Diwakar, L. Martin, B. Baxter, C. Read, P. Grover, and D. Ziegler Heat Transfer Considerations for DC Busbars Sizing 427 A. Schneider, T. Plikas, D. Richard, and L. Gunnewiek The Impact of Cell Ventilation on the Top Heat Losses and Fugitive Emissions in an Aluminium Smelting Cell 433 H. Abbas, M. Taylor, M. Farid, and J. Chen Mathematical Modelling of Aluminum Reduction Cell Potshell Deformation 439 M. Dupuis Recommended Reading 445 Part 3: Design Section Introduction 449 New Cell Design Development of Large Prebaked Anode Cells by Alcoa 451 G. Holmes, D. Fisher, J. Clark, and W. Ludwig Aluminium Pechiney 280 kA Pots 457 B. Langon and P. Varin AP 50: The Pechiney 500 kA Cell 462 C. Vanvoren, P. Homsi, J. Basquin, and T. Beheregaray The Pot Technology Development in China 468 X. Yang, J. Zhu, and K. Sun Cell Retrofit VAW Experience in Smelter Modernization 474 V. Sparwald, G. Wendt, and G. Winkhaus From HOto 175 kA: Retrofit of VAW Rheinwerk Part I: Modernization Concept 479 D. Vogelsang, I. Eick, M. Segatz, and C. Droste From 110 to 175 kA: Retrofit of VAW Rheinwerk Part II: Construction & Operation 485 J. Ghosh, A. Steube, and B. Levenig Productivity Increase at Soral Smelter 489 T. Johansen, H. Lange, and R. von Kaenel Reduction Cell Technology Development at Dubai Through 20 Years 494 A. Kalban, Y. AlFarsi, and A. Binbrek Potline Amperage Increase from 160 kA to 175 kA during One Month 500 B. Moxnes, E. Furu, O. Jakob sen, A. Solbu, and H. Kvancle AP35: The Latest High Performance Industrially Available New Cell Technology 506 C. Vanvoren, P. Homsi, B. Feve, B. Molinier, and Y. di Giovanni Tomago Aluminium AP22 Project 512 L. Fiot, C. Jamey, N. Backhouse, and C. Vanvoren Development of D18 Cell Technology at Dubai 518 D. Whitfield, A. Said, M. Al-Jallaf, and A. Mohammed New Cathodes in Aluminum Reduction Cells 523 N. Feng, Y. Tian, J. Peng, Y. Wang, X. Qi, and G. Tu Other Dimensioning of Cooling Fins for High-Amperage Reduction Cells 527 I. Eick and D. Vogelsang Satisfying Financial Institutions for Major Capital Projects 534 J. Heintzen and R. Harrison Development and Deployment of Slotted Anode Technology at Alcoa 539 X. Wang, G. Tarcy, S. Whelan, S. Porto, C. Ritter, B. Ouellet, G. Homley, A. Morphett, G. Proulx, S. Lindsay, andJ. Bruggeman Innovative Solutions to Sustainability in Hydro 545 H Lange, N. Holt, H Linga, and L. Solli Recommended Reading 551 Part 4: Operations Section Introduction 553 Anode Change Current Pickup and Temperature Distribution in Newly Set Prebaked Hall-Heroult Anodes 555 R. 0degard, A. Solheim, and K. Thovsen Thermal Effects by Anode Changing in Prebake Reduction Cells 562 F. Aune, M. Bugge, H. Kvande, T. Ringstad, and S. Rolseth Material Issues Considerations in the Selection of Alumina for Smelter Operation 569 A. Archer Alumina Transportation to Cells 574 I. Stankovich Study of Alumina Behavior in Smelting Plant Storage Tanks 581 H Hsieh New Aerated Distribution (ADS) and Anti Segregation (ASS) Systems for Alumina 590 M. Karlsen, A. Dyr0y, B. Nagell, G. Enstad, and P. Hilgraf Beryllium in Pot Room Bath 596 S. Lindsay and C. Dobbs Hard Gray Scale 602 N. Dando and S. Lindsay Aluminum Fluoride A Users Guide 608 S. Lindsay Anode Cover and Crust Crusting Behavior of Smelter Aluminas 613 D. Townsend and L. Boxall On Alumina Phase Transformation and Crust Formation in Aluminum Cells 622 R. Oedegard, S. Roenning, S. Rolseth, and J. Thonstad Heat Transfer, Thermal Conductivity, and Emissivity of Hall-Heroult Top Crust 630 K. Rye, J. Thonstad, and X. Liu Improving Anode Cover Material Quality at Nordural Quality Tools and Measures 639 H. Gudmundsson Operational Improvement Appraisal of the Operation of Horizontal-Stud Cells with the Addition of Lithium Flouride 645 K. Mizoguchi and K. Yuhki Technical Results of Improved Soederberg Cells 652 H. Hosoi, M. Sugaya, and S. Tosaka Strategies for Decreasing the Unit Energy and Environmental Impact of Hall-Heroult Cells 659 N. Richards Operational and Control Improvements in Reduction Lines at Aluminium Delfzijl 669 M. Stam, M. Taylor, J. Chen, and S. van Dellen Power Modulation and Supply Issues Modeling Power Modulation 674 M. Dupuis Smelters in the EU and the Challenge of the Emission Trading Scheme 679 H. Kruse Challenges in Power Modulation 683 D. Eisma and P. Pate I Cell Start-up and Restart Hibernating Large Soderberg Cells 689 N. Sundaram Thermal Bake-Out of Reduction Cell Cathodes-Advantages and Problem Areas 694 W. Richards, P. Young, J. Keniry, and P. Shaw The Economics of Shutting and Restarting Primary Aluminium Smelting Capacity 699 K. Driscoll Brazil 2001 Energy Crisis -The Albras Approach 707 H. Dias Potline Startup with Low Anode Effect Frequency 712 W. Kristensen, G. Hoskuldsson, and B. Welch Cell Preheat/Start-up and Early Operation 718 K. Rye Loss in Cathode Life Resulting from the Shutdown and Restart of Potlines at Aluminum Smelters 723 A. Tabereaux Simultaneous Preheating and Fast Restart of 50 Aluminium Reduction Cells in an Idled Potline 729 A. Mulder, A. Folkers, M. Stam, and M. Taylor Recommended Reading 735 Part 5: Control Section Introduction 737 Overview Overview of Process Control in Reduction Cells and Potlines 739 P. Homsi, J. Peyneau, and M. Reverdy Alumina Control A Demand Feed Strategy for Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 747 K. Robilliard and B. Rolofs Design Considerations for Selecting the Number of Point Feeders in Modern Reduction Cells 752 M. Walker, J. Pur die, N. Wai-Poi, B. Welch, and J. Chen Pseudo Resistance Curves for Aluminium Cell Control - Alumina Dissolution and Cell Dynamics 760 H. Kvande, B. Moxnes, J. Skaar, and P. Solli Aiming For Zero Anode Effects 767 W. Haupin and E. Seger Reduction of CF4 Emissions from the Aluminum Smelter in Essen 774 M. Iffert, J. Opgen-Rhein, and R. Ganther The Initiation, Propagation and Termination of Anode Effects in Hall-Heroult Cells 782 TMS, G. Tarcy, and A. Tabereaux Heat Balance Control Operation of 150 kAPrebaked Furnaces with Automatic Voltage Control 786 R. Bacchiega, A. Innocenti, M. Holzmann, and B. Panebianco Bath Chemistry Control System 798 D. Salt The Liquidus Enigma 804 W. Haupin Control of Bath Temperature 808 P. Entner Noise Classification in the Aluminum Reduction Process 812 L. Banta, C. Dai, and P. Biedler Increased Current Efficiency and Reduced Energy Consumption at the TRIMET Smelter Essen Using 9 Box Matrix Control 817 T. Rieck, M. Iffert, P. White, R. Rodrigo, and R. Kelchtermans A Nonlinear Model Based Control Strategy for the Aluminium Electrolysis Process 825 S. Kolas and S. Wasbo Probes and Sensors Bath and Liquidus Temperature Sensor for Molten Salts 830 P. Verstreken and S. Benninghoff Anode Signal Analysis The Next Generation in Reduction Cell Control 838 J. Keniry and E. Shaidulin Alcoa STARprobe 844 X. Wang, B. Hosier, and G. Tarcy Recommended Reading 851 Part 6: Environmental Section Introduction 855 HF and Other Gaseous Emission A Study of Factors Affecting Fluoride Emission from 10,000 Ampere Experimental Aluminum Reduction Cells 857 J. Henry The Characterisation of Aluminium Reduction Cell Fume 865 L. Less and J. Waddington Factors Affecting Fluoride Evolution from Hall-Heroult Smelting Cells 870 W. Wahnsiedler, R. Danchik, W. Haupin, D. Backenstose, and J. Colpitts A Study of the Equilibrium Adsorption of Hydrogen Fluoride on Smelter Grade Aluminas 879 W. Lamb The Role and Fate of S02inthe Aluminium Reduction Cell Dry Scrubbing Systems 889 W. Lamb Sulphur Containing Compounds in the Anode Gas from Aluminium Cells, A Laboratory Investigation 898 R. Oedegard, S. Roenning, A. Sterten, and J. Thonstad Mathematical Model of Fluoride Evolution from Hall-Heroult Cells 903 W. Haupin and H. Kvande Factors Influencing Cell Hooding and Gas Collection Efficiencies 910 M. Karlsen, V. Kielland, H Kvande, and S. Vestre Sulfur and Fluorine Containing Anode Gases Produced during Normal Electrolysis and Approaching an Anode Effect 918 M. Dorreen, D. Chin, J. Lee, M. Hyland, and B. Welch Understanding the Effects of the Hydrogen Content of Anodes on Hydrogen Fluoride Emissions from Aluminium Cells... 924 E. Patterson, M. Hyland, V. Kielland, and B. Welch Effect of Open Holes in the Crust on Gaseous Fluoride Evolution from Pots 930 M. Slaugenhaupt, J. Bruggeman, G. Tarcy, and N. Dando Alumina Structural Hydroxyl as a Continuous Source of HF 936 M. Hyland, E. Patterson, and B. Welch Investigation of Solutions to Reduce Fluoride Emissions from Anode Butts and Crust Cover Material 942 G. Girault, M. Faure, J. Bertolo, S. Massambi, and G. Bertran Gas Capture and Treatment Global Considerations of Aluminium Electrolysis on Energy and the Environment 948 R. Huglen and H. Kvande The Surface Chemistry of Secondary Alumina from the Dry Scrubbing Process 956 A. Gillespie, M. Hyland, and J. Metson S02 Emission Control in the Aluminium Industry 962 S. Strommen, E. Bjornstad, and G. Wedde Reduction of HF Emissions from the TRIMET Aluminum Smelter (Optimizing Dry Scrubber Operations and Its Impact on Process Operations) 968 M. Lffert, M. Kuenkel, M. Skyllas-Kazacos, and B. Welch Handling C02EQ from an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell 975 O. Lorentsen, A. Dyroy, and M. Karlsen Dry Scrubbing for Modern Pre-Bake Cells 981 S. Lindsay and N. Dando Pot Gas Heat Recovery and Emission Control 987 A. Sorhuus and G. Wedde The Applicability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Primary Aluminium Smelters 993 S. Broek and S. Save Material Issues Dusting Properties of Industrial Aluminas 999 P. Ravn and A. Windfeldt Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Emissions Evaluation of Fluorocarbon Emissions from the Aluminum Smelting Process 1007 R. Roberts and P. Ramsey Perfluorocarbon (PFC) Generation at Primary Aluminum Smelters 1015 B. LeberJr., A. Tabereaux, J. Marks, B. Lamb, T. Howard, R. Kantamaneni, M. Gibbs, V. Bakshi, and E. Dolin Factors Affecting PFC Emissions from Commercial Aluminum Reduction Cells 1024 J. Marks, A. Tabereaux, D. Rape, V. Bakshi, and E. Dolin Protocol for Measurement of Tetrafluoromethane and Hexafluoroethane fromPrimary Aluminum Production 1032 J. Marks, R. Kantamaneni, D. Rape, and S. Rand On Continuous PFC Emission Unrelated to Anode Effects 1037 W. Li, Q. Zhao, J. Yang, S. Qiu, X. Chen, J. Marks, and C. Bayliss Recommended Reading 1043 Part 7: Alternative Processes Section Introduction 1047 Overview Impact of Alternative Processes for Aluminium Production on Energy Requirements 1049 K Grjotheim and B. Welch Alternate Smelting Processes for Aluminum 1056 C. Cochran Carbothermic Technoeconomic Assessment of the Carbothermic Reduction Process for Aluminum Production 1070 W. Choate and J. Green Solid State Carbothermal Reduction of Alumina 1076 D. Liu, G. Zhang, J. Li, and O. Ostrovski Other Production of Aluminum-Silicon Alloys from Sand and Clay in Hall Cells 1082 A. Tabereaux and C. McMinn Bench Scale Electrolysis of Alumina in Sodium Fluoride-Aluminum Fluoride Melts Below 900 C 1089 W. Sleppy and C. Cochran Electrolysis of Alumina in a Molten Salt at 760 C 1095 A. LaCamera Aluminum Reduction via Near Room Temperature Electrolysis in Ionic Liquids 1100 B. Wu, R. Reddy, and R. Rogers Recommended Reading 1107 Author Index 1109

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118635742
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1148
  • ID: 9781118635742
  • weight: 2854
  • ISBN10: 1118635744
  • edition: Volume 2

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