Anna Leon-Guerrero is a professor of sociology at Pacific Lutheran University in Tacoma, Washington. A recipient of the university's Faculty Excellence Award and the K. T. Tang Award for Excellence in Research, she teaches courses on statistics, sociological theory, and social problems. As a social service program evaluator and consultant, she has focused her research on welfare reform, employment strategies for the working poor, and program assessment. She is the coauthor of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society and Essentials of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society (with Chava Frankfort-Nachmias). Chava Frankfort-Nachmias is an Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She is the coauthor of Research Methods in the Social Sciences (with David Nachmias), coeditor of Sappho in the Holy Land (with Erella Shadmi) and numerous publications on ethnicity and development, urban revitalization, science and gender, and women in Israel. She was the recipient of the University of Wisconsin System teaching improvement grant on integrating race, ethnicity, and gender into the social statistics and research methods curriculum. She is also the coauthor (with Anna Leon-Guerrero) of Social Statistics for a Diverse Society.
Preface About the Authors CHAPTER 1. The What and the Why of Statistics The Research Process Asking Research Questions The Role of Theory Formulating the Hypotheses Collecting Data Analyzing Data and Evaluating the Hypotheses Examining a Diverse Society CHAPTER 2. The Organization and Graphic Presentation of Data Frequency Distributions Proportions and Percentages Percentage Distributions The Construction of Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Rates Bivariate Tables Graphic Presentation of Data The Pie Chart The Bar Graph The Histogram The Line Graph The Time-Series Chart Statistics in Practice: Foreign-Born Population 65 Years and Over Reading the Research Literature: The Digital Divide CHAPTER 3. Measures of Central Tendency The Mode The Median The Mean Reading the Research Literature: The Case of Reporting Income Statistics in Practice: The Shape of the Distribution Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency CHAPTER 4. Measures of Variability The Importance of Measuring Variability The Index of Qualitative Variation Statistics in Practice: Diversity in U.S. Society The Range The Interquartile Range The Variance and the Standard Deviation Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Variation Reading the Research Literature: Community College Mentoring CHAPTER 5. The Normal Distribution Properties of the Normal Distribution An Application of the Normal Curve The Standard Normal Distribution The Standard Normal Table Reading the Research Literature: Child Health and Academic Achievement CHAPTER 6. Sampling and Sampling Distribution Aims of Sampling Basic Probability Principles Probability Sampling The Concept of the Sampling Distribution The Sampling Distribution of the Mean The Central Limit Theorem Statistics in Practice: A Sampling Lesson CHAPTER 7. Estimation Point and Interval Estimation Confidence Intervals for Means Confidence Intervals for Proportions Reading the Research Literature: Women Victims of Intimate Violence CHAPTER 8. Testing Hypotheses Assumptions of Statistical Hypothesis Testing Stating the Research and Null Hypotheses Probability Values and Alpha The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary Errors in Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing With One Sample and Population Variance Unknown Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Means The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Means The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing About Difference Between Means: A Summary Statistics in Practice: Cigarette Use Among Teens Hypothesis Testing With Two Sample Proportions Reading the Research Literature: Reporting the Results of Hypothesis Testing CHAPTER 9. The Chi-Square Test and Measures of Association The Concept of Chi-Square as a Statistical Test The Concept of Statistical Independence The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With Chi-Square Statistics in Practice: Respondent and Father Education Proportional Reduction of Error Lambda: A Measure of Association for Nominal Variables Cramer's V: A Chi-Square-Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables Cramer's V: A Chi-Square-Related Measure of Association for Nominal Variables Reading the Research Literature: India's Internet-Using Population CHAPTER 10. Analysis of Variance Understanding Analysis of Variance The Structure of Hypothesis Testing With ANOVA The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing: A Summary Statistics in Practice: The Ethical Consumer Reading the Research Literature: Emerging Adulthood CHAPTER 11. Regression and Correlation The Scatter Diagram Linear Relationships and Prediction Rules A Negative Relationship: Age and Internet Hours per Week Methods for Assessing the Accuracy of Predictions Testing the Significance of r2 Using ANOVA Statistics in Practice: Multiple Regression ANOVA for Multiple Linear Regression Reading the Research Literature: Academic Intentions and Support Appendix A. Table of Random Numbers Appendix B. The Standard Normal Table Appendix C. Distribution of t Appendix D. Distribution of Chi-Square Appendix E. Distribution of F Appendix F. A Basic Math Review Learning Check Solutions Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises Glossary Notes Index