A contribution to the ongoing debate about how to manage the growing risks of anthropogenic chemicals in the environment, Essentials of Toxic Chemical Risk weaves together coverage of the science that underlies toxic chemical risk assessment, the physiological and molecular bases of chemical toxicity, the process of assessing toxic chemical risk to human health and the environment, and the strategies employed in managing it. The book links toxic chemical risk to the real world of people and communities confronted with the vexing problem of how to deal with products that make their lives better but that also harbor a potential for harm.
The book introduces the basics of toxicology from a risk assessment perspective, using a jargon-free, journalistic style that makes scientific concepts accessible to a wide audience without "dumbing down" the science. It covers the fate and transport of chemicals in the environment, dose-effect, animal toxicity testing, human epidemiology, the uptake, distribution, and elimination of toxic chemicals including first-order rate constants and calculations of body burdens, and the cellular basis of cancer and other diseases that can be caused by toxic chemicals. The book also introduces risk management and discusses the balance between precaution and socio-economic benefits, as embodied by the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, and the European Union's innovative REACH directive (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of chemicals).
Putting equal emphasis on the twin issues of risk assessment and risk management, the author has carefully selected topics that shed light on risk management decisions and cover ecotoxicolocy and organismic toxicology. The book provides a thorough introduction to the science of toxicology and to the policy debates and scientific uncertainties that make risk management a work in progress.
Stephen Penningroth was educated at a German Gymnasium, did his undergraduate work at Brown University and the Columbia University School of General Studies, and earned a Ph.D. in Biochemical Sciences from Princeton University in 1977. He served as an assistant and associate professor at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-School of Osteopathic Medicine, teaching pharmacology and toxicology to second-year medical and osteopathic students and performing basic research on cell motility with grant support from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Following a sabbatical leave, he shifted focus to science education, resigning from the medical school and moving to Cornell University as an adjunct faculty member in 1993. While at Cornell he designed and taught undergraduate courses in environmental, regulatory and reproductive toxicology and also acted as a technical advisor to three citizens groups at Superfund toxic waste sites in New York and New Jersey. Since 2000 he has served as Executive Director of the not-for-profit Community Science Institute communityscience.org in Ithaca, NY, which partners with citizen volunteers to address risks to water in the Finger Lakes region.
Toxic Chemical Risk as Science and Social Discourse The Science of Toxicology Chemical Hazard, Risk Assessment, and Risk Management How This Book Is Organized References Environmental Pathways of Toxic Chemicals Introduction Partitioning Advective Transport Chemical Transformation Bioconcentration, Bioaccumulation, and Biomagnification Ecosystems and Biogeochemical Cycles The Hydrologic Cycle Assessing and Managing Exposure References Dose-Effect: The Foundation of Toxicological Science Introduction Ethical Dilemmas and the Protection of Public Health Preliminary Investigations of Toxicity The Quantal Dose-Effect Relationship: The Workhorse of Risk Assessment The Graded Dose-Effect Relationship References Human Populations at Risk Introduction Law and Loopholes After the Fact The Null Hypothesis and Statistical Power Proof of Causation Designing an Epidemiological Study: Cohort vs. Case Control Level I, II, and III Epidemiological Studies References The Cornerstone of Risk Assessment: Toxicity Testing in Animals Introduction Designing a Toxicity Test Descriptions of Toxicity Tests and Their Products The Probit Plot Information Derived from Toxicity Testing Toxicity Investigations in Individual Organisms vs. Populations Using Animals to Screen Personal-Care Products: Local Irritation and Sensitization Tests Reducing the Use of Animals in Toxicity Testing References The Body's Defenses against Chemical Toxicity Introduction Exposure and Bioavailability The Cell Membrane Elimination by the Kidneys Excretion, Elimination, and Weak Acids and Bases Biotransformations The Kinetics of Single-Dose Exposure: Uptake, Distribution, and Elimination The Kinetics of Repeated-Dose Exposure References Mechanisms of Chemical Disease Introduction Noncancer Health Effects Cancer References Human Health Risk Assessment Introduction The Process of Risk Assessment Hazard Identification Analysis of Exposure Analysis of Effects Risk Characterization References Ecological Risk Assessment Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment The EPA's Ecological Risk-Assessment Process Environmental Impact Statement References Managing Chemical Risk in North America and Europe Introduction Costs of Toxic Chemicals to Society Core Concepts of Risk Management General Strategies for Managing Toxic Chemical Risk Environmental Laws in North America and Europe References Index