Improve academic learning outcomes with accurate working memory assessment and evidence-based interventions Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention is an accessible, practical guide to accurately and efficiently assessing working memory. This comprehensive resource explains the theories of working memory, with an emphasis on cognitive load theory, and provides step-by-step guidelines for organizing a cross-battery assessment, selecting appropriate instruments, interpreting results, and formulating individualized interventions and educational programming. In-depth case studies illustrate typical profiles found in children and adolescents with working memory deficits, and the companion CD features worksheets, testing charts, and other useful resources. Reader-friendly design elements including Rapid Reference, Caution, and Don't Forget boxes, and practice questions, bullet points, and icons make this guide useful for both study and desk reference. Working memory deficits are the main reason why students with disabilities are unable to successfully respond to regular education interventions.
Given the strong relationship between working memory and all areas of academic learning, a deeper understanding of working memory and the related assessments and interventions can facilitate greater achievement. This book helps readers: * Understand the development and neuroanatomy of working memory * Learn techniques for improving working memory in the classroom * Examine strategies for brain-based working memory training * Effectively utilize working memory assessment measures By examining the critical functions of working memory and its relationship with specific learning disabilities, then providing strategies for assessment and detailed intervention guidance, this book helps educatorsand professionals guide their students and clients toward improved cognitive functioning, , reduced frustration, and improved academic performance . For those seeking a practical approach to working memory, Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention provides the tools and information they need.
MILTON J. DEHN, Ed.D., NCSP, is the cofounder and program director of Schoolhouse Tutoring(R) and a former practicing school psychologist, associate professor, and director of a graduate training program in school psychology. He is the author of Working Memory and Academic Learning, Long-Term Memory Problems in Children and Adolescents, and Essentials of Processing Assessment, Second Edition all from Wiley.
Series Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv One Working Memory Models 1 Working Memory s Influence 2 Baddeley s Working Memory Model 3 Other Models of Working Memory 7 The Controversy Regarding Working Memory Capacity 12 Retention Intervals 15 Cognitive LoadTheory 15 The Integrated Model of Working Memory 16 Two Cognitive Processes Highly Related With Working Memory 25 General Intelligence 26 Fluid Reasoning 28 The Big Three 30 Executive Functions 30 Attention 31 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 32 Oral Language 34 Auditory Processing 35 Phonological Processing 35 Processing Speed 36 Visual-Spatial Processing 37 Sequential Processing 37 Long-Term Memory 38 Metamemory 42 Strategies 43 Three Development, Neuroanatomy, and Risk Factors 45 Development of Working Memory 45 Metamemory Development 50 Long-Term Memory Development 51 The Neuroanatomy of Working Memory 51 The Neuroanatomy of Long-Term Memory 56 Risk Factors for Working Memory Impairments 58 Four Working Memory s Influence on Academic Learning and Performance 64 Working Memory and Classroom Learning 65 Cognitive Load in the Classroom 66 Working Memory and Basic Reading Skills 69 Working Memory and Reading Comprehension 72 Working Memory and Mathematics 75 Working Memory and Written Expression 81 Working Memory and Oral Language 82 Working Memory and Scholastic Performance 84 Working Memory and LD 85 The Importance of Automaticity 89 Implications for Assessment 90 Conclusions 91 Five Assessment Strategies 95 How to Determine Which Working Memory Component a Subtest Measures 96 Informal Assessment Procedures 102 Assessing Interaction With Long-Term Memory 114 Working Memory Testing 116 Testing Related Cognitive Processes 122 Analyzing Test Results 122 Interpretation of Working Memory Assessment Data 132 Specific Learning Disability Determination 137 Memory Processes Analyzer 138 Six Psychological ScalesThat Measure Working Memory 141 Child and Adolescent Memory Profile (CHAMP) 143 Cognitive Assessment System, Second Edition (CAS-II) 143 Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP2) 145 Differential Ability Scales Second Edition (DAS-II) 146 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition (KABC-II) 148 The NEPSY II 149 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales Fifth Edition (SB5) 151 Test of Auditory Processing Skills,Third Edition (TAPS-3) 152 Test of Memory and Learning Second Edition (TOMAL-2) 153 The Wechsler Intelligence Scales 155 WISC-IV Integrated 158 WechslerMemory Scale, Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) 159 Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning Second Edition (WRAML2) 161 Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement (WJ IV ACH) 163 Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ IV COG) 163 Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Oral Language (WJ IV OL) 165 Seven Working Memory Interventions That Change the Brain 168 Types of Working Memory Interventions 169 Selecting Working Memory Exercises and Strategies 169 Measuring Progress 175 Metamemory Training 177 The Efficacy of Working Memory Training 177 How Working Memory Training Changes the Brain 181 Conclusions Regarding the Efficacy of Working Memory Training 183 Internet-Based Working Memory Training 184 Hands-On Working Memory Exercises 188 Interventions That Improve Related Cognitive Processes 192 Eight Supporting Working Memory in the Classroom 197 The Mnemonic-Based Classroom 198 Metamemory Instruction 200 Instruction That Reduces Cognitive Load 201 Accommodations and Modifications for Specific Academic Subjects 205 General Accommodations 208 Instructional Practices That Support Working Memory 209 Teaching Working Memory Strategies 213 Bypassing Working Memory by Using LTM Strategies 222 Nine Case Study 225 Working Memory Interpretation Section 225 Case Study Assessment 227 Example of a Written Interpretation 236 Jon s Interventions 241 Appendix A Scaled Score to Standard Score Conversion Table With Percentiles 253 Appendix B T-Score to Standard Score Conversion Table 256 Appendix C Working Memory Composites and Subtests Sorted by Scale 259 Annotated Bibliography 266 References 269 About the Author 303 About the Online Resources 304 Index 307