Bridging the gap between applied ethics and ethical theory, Ethical Argumentation draws on recent research in argumentation theory to develop a more realistic model of how ethical justification actually works. Douglas Walton presents a new model of ethical argumentation in which ethical justification is analyzed as a defeasible form of argumentation considered in a balanced dialogue. Walton's new model employs techniques such as: asking the appropriate critical questions, probing accepted values, finding nonexplicit assumptions in an ethical argument, and deconstructing emotive terms and persuasive definitions. This book will be of significant interest to scholars and advanced students in applied ethics and theory.
Douglas Walton holds the Assumption University Chair in Argumentation Studies and is Distinguished Research Fellow of the Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation, and Rhetoric at the University of Windsor.
Chapter 1 Introduction Part 2 Fundamentals of Ethical Argumentation Chapter 3 Legal Arguments Chapter 4 Hard Cases and Easy Cases Chapter 5 Ross's Theory of Ethical Reasoning Chapter 6 Comparison of Ethical and Legal Arguments Chapter 7 The Problem of Emotive Language Chapter 8 Toward a New Framework Chapter 9 Aristotle on Endoxic Ethical Justification Chapter 10 Evaluating Ethical Argumentation in a Dialogue Format Chapter 11 Deliberation and Practical Reasoning Chapter 12 Concluding Perspectives Part 13 The Layered Maieutic Case Study Method Chapter 14 A Case from Medical Ethics Chapter 15 The Layer of Deliberation Chapter 16 Dialectical Shifts Chapter 17 The Layer of Critical Discussion Chapter 18 Maieutic Insight and Commitment Chapter 19 The Case Analysis and Discussion Chapter 20 The Structure of a Layered Case Study Chapter 21 Current Status of Casuistry in Ethics Chapter 22 How to Evaluate a Layered Case Study Chapter 23 Summary of the Layered Maieutic Case Study Method Part 24 The Central Characteristics of Ethical Reasoning Chapter 25 The Problem of Circular Ethical Justification Chapter 26 Ethical and Legal Reasoning Reconsidered Chapter 27 Chained Inferences in Retrospective Ethical Reasoning Chapter 28 Deep Disagreements and Ultimate Ethical Premises Chapter 29 Facts and Values in Ethical Reasoning Chapter 30 Abductive Inference Chapter 31 Endoxic Premises Chapter 32 How to Determine Endoxic Premises Chapter 33 Summary of the Structure of Ethical Reasoning Part 34 Persuasive Definitions Chapter 35 Stevenson's Theory of Persuasive Definitions Chapter 36 Public Policy Implications of Persuasive Definitions Chapter 37 Value-Laden Terms and Moral Persuasion Chapter 38 A Pragmatic Approach to Definitions Chapter 39 Use of Loaded Terms Chapter 40 The Deceptive Aspect of Persuasive Definitions Chapter 41 Is There a Fallacy of Loaded Terms? Chapter 42 How to Evaluate a Persuasive Definition Chapter 43 Uses in Other Contexts Part 44 Dialectic, Persuasion, and Rhetoric Chapter 45 What is Dialectic? Chapter 46 The New Dialectic Chapter 47 The General Idea of Persuasion Dialogue Chapter 48 Critical Discussion and Rational Persuasion Chapter 49 Fallacies and Faults of Arguments Chapter 50 The Maieutic Function and Learning What Your Goals Are Chapter 51 The Opposition between Rhetoric and Dialectic Chapter 52 Persuasion, Action, and Ethical Justification Chapter 53 A New Program for Studying Ethical Argumentation Part 54 The Probative Function Chapter 55 The Probative Function and Circular Arguments Chapter 56 Account of the Probative Function in Sextus Empiricus Chapter 57 The Problem of Circular Reasoning as Treated in Ancient Sources Chapter 58 Infinite Regress Arguments Chapter 59 Types of Arguments Chapter 60 Linked and Convergent Arguments Chapter 61 Chaining of Arguments Chapter 62 Doubt Reduction and Chaining Chapter 63 The Importance of the Probative Function Chapter 64 Summary: How the Probative Function Works Part 65 The New System of Layered Justification Chapter 66 Subjective and Objective Chapter 67 Attitudes, Emotions, and Rationality Chapter 68 Evidence, Emotion, and Ethical Justification Chapter 69 Emotivism, Relativism, and Postmodernism Chapter 70 The Dialectical Shift to a Verbal Dispute Chapter 71 Multiple Definitions of Ethical Terms Chapter 72 An Argumentation System for Ethical Definitions Chapter 73 The Difference between Layered Ethical Justification and Propaganda Chapter 74 Summary of the Argumentation System Chapter 75 The Pragmatic Nature of Ethical Argumentation