After being immersed in almost three decades of civil conflict, the prevailing peace and political stability in Ethiopia allowed its government to focus on rebuilding its economy. As an integral part of this undertaking, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is seeking to overhaul the landscape of human capital development in the country. This report discusses the situation and trends in education, health, nutrition, and population. It also examines the barriers to improvement from the points of view of Ethiopian households and public and private suppliers of services. It also attempts to identify the means by which the government can use public resources more effectively.