The modern world is characterised by pervasive economic inequalities. Strong economic growth in some developing countries has contributed to a degree to a reduction in the levels of inequality between nations, yet inequality within nations remains high and in some cases, continues to increase. Ethnic Stratification and Economic Inequality around the World investigates the reasons for these striking differences, exploring the coincidence and interaction between economic stratification and ethnic differentiation. Drawing on extensive international survey and statistical data, the author develops a new theory and concrete hypotheses concerning the conditions which lead toward extreme inequality and those which tend toward greater equality. A systematic examination of the interaction between class structures, social stratification and ethnic differentiation, this book sheds light on the manner in which the resulting social structures produce different levels of economic inequality, offering a fivefold typology of patterns of ethnic stratification, which can be applied to present-day world regions. Drawing on the work of Max Weber to provide a rigorous investigation of inequality around the world, it demonstrates what 'sociology as a science of social reality' can significantly contribute to our understanding of global economic stratification. The book is relevant for a wide social-scientific audience, particularly for sociologists, economists and political scientists working in a comparative perspective.
Max Haller is Professor of Sociology at the University of Graz, Austria, and co-editor of The International Social Survey Programme: Charting the Globe. Anja Eder is a completing her PhD and is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Graz, Austria. She works in the fields of social inequality in international comparison and in applied sociology. Her dissertation focuses on peoples' attitudes towards social inequality in international country-comparison. She is also teaching in empirical methods of quantitative research and on social inequality. She is a founding member and member of the scientific board of the Center for Empirical Methods of the Social Sciences (GMZ Grazer Methodenkompetenzzentrum) at the University of Graz.
Contents: Preface. Part I The Problem, Theory and Quantitative Statistical Analysis: Worldwide differences in national structures of economic inequality. Some basic facts and their view in economics and sociology; Ethnic differentiation, stratification and conflicts in the world today. Concepts, theories and basic facts; Ethnic stratification and economic inequality. Theory and hypotheses; Income inequality as a result of ethnic heterogeneity and ethno-class exploitation. Macro-level quantitative and qualitative analyses. Part II Historical-Comparative Analysis and Case Studies: The prevention and the emergence of ethnic differentiation and stratification. A sociological-historical typology; Two roads toward egalitarianism in ethnic homogeneous societies: Sweden and Japan; Ethnic-national cleavages and the rise and fate of Communist systems; The ethnic hierarchy. India's caste system in comparative perspective; Coloured class structures: Brazil and Hispanic America; Ethno-class regimes. The origins and forces sustaining glaring economic inequality in sub-Saharan Africa; 'Separate, but equal'. The characteristics, origins, and aftermaths of Apartheid systems; Israel: surge of inequality in a young ethno-nation; Pre-conditions and perspectives for peace and equality in ethnically differentiated societies. Political implications and conclusions. Indexes.