Until now, Andean peasants have primarily been thought of by scholars as isolated subsistence farmers, "resistant" to money and to different markets in the region. Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes overturns this widely held assumption and puts in its place a new perspective as it explores the dynamic between Andean cultural, social, and economic practices and the market forces of a colonial and postcolonial mercantile economy.
Bringing together the work of outstanding scholars in Andean history, anthropology, and ethnohistory, these pioneering essays show how, from the very earliest period of Spanish rule, Andean peasants and their rulers embraced the new economic opportunities and challenged or subverted the new structures introduced by the colonial administration. They also convincingly explain why in the twentieth century the mistaken idea developed that Andean peasants were conservative and unable to participate effectively in different markets, and reveal how closely ethnic inequalities were tied to evolving market relations. Inviting a critical reconsideration of ethnic, class, and gender issues in the context of rural Andean markets, this book will revise the prevailing view of Andean history and provide a more fully informed picture of the complex mercantile activities of Andean peasants.
Brooke Larson is Associate Professor of History and Director of the Latin American and Caribbean Center at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. Olivia Harris is Senior Lecturer and Chair of the Anthropology Department at Goldsmith's College, London. Enrique Tandeter is Chair of the Department of History at the University of Buenos Aires and an Associate at the Center for the Study of State and Society in Buenos Aires.
List of Maps ix Acknowledgments 1 I. Introduction 3 1. Andean Communities, Political Cultures, and Markets: The Changing Contours of a Field / Brooke Larson 5 II. From Inca to Spanish Rule: The Making of Indians and Markets 55 2. Did Tribute and Markets Prevail in the Andes before the European invasion? / John V. Murra 57 3. The Variety and Ambiguity of Native Andean Intervention in European Colonial Markets / Steve J. Stern 73 4. Exchange in the Ethnic Territories between 1530 and 1567: The Visitas of Huanuco and Chucuito / Carlos Sempat Assadourian 101 5. Exchange and Markets in the Sixteenth Century: A View from the North / Susan E. Ramirez 135 III. Andean Tribute, Migration, and Trade: Remapping the Boundaries of Ethnicity and Exchange 165 6. Indian Migration and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century Charcas / Thierry Saignas 167 7. Indians in Late Colonial Markets: Sources and Numbers / Enripe Tandeter, Vilma Milletich, Maria Matilda Olllier, and Beatriz Ruibal 196 8. Markets, Power, and the Politics of Exchange in Tapacari, c.1780 and 1980 / Brooke Larson and Rosario Leon 224 IV. Negotiating the Meanings of Market Exchange: Community and Hierarchy in Three Andean Contexts 257 9. Ethnic Calendars and Market Interventions Among the Ayllus of Lipes during the Nineteenth Century / Tristan Platt 259 10. The Sources and Meanings of Money: Beyond the Market Paradigm in an Ayllu of Northern Potosi / Olivia Harris 297 11. "Women Are More Indian": Ethnicity and Gender in a Community near Cuzco / Marisol de la Cadena 329 V. Conclusion 349 12. Ethnic Identity and Market Relations: Indians and Mestizos in the Andes / Olivia Harris 351 Glossary 391 Selected Bibliography 397 Contributors 419 Index 421