Etiology-Based Dental and Craniofacial Diagnostics

Etiology-Based Dental and Craniofacial Diagnostics

By: Inger Kjaer (author)Hardback

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Etiology-Based Dental and Craniofacial Diagnostics explores the role of embryology and fetal pathology in the assessment, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment planning of a wide range of disorders in the dentition and craniofacial region. Initial chapters cover various aspects of normal dental and craniofacial development, providing the necessary biological background for understanding abnormal patient cases. Chapters then focus on the etiology behind a wide range of cases observed in everyday practice including deviations in tooth morphology and number, tooth eruption, root and crown resorption, and craniofacial malformations, disruptions and dysplasia. * Unique new work from a leading authority in orthodontics, craniofacial embryology and fetal pathology * Demonstrates how human prenatal development offers unique insights into postnatal diagnosis and treatment * Clinical significance and implications are highlighted in summaries at the end of each chapter * Ideal for postgraduate students in orthodontics, paediatric dentistry and oral medicine

About Author

Inger Kjaer is Professor Emerita at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. A specialist in orthodontics, Inger has two doctoral theses; one in odontology and one in medicine. She has held university positions for 29 years and chief clinical positions in orthodontics and pediatric dentistry outside the university for 11 years. These positions have formed the basis for 214 international scientific articles and a worldwide teaching experience for pre- and postgraduate professionals. Inger is co-author of The Prenatal Human Cranium: Normal and Pathological Development (Wiley-Blackwell, 1999).


Preface, ix Introduction, xi Limited access to human material, xi Content and structure of the book, xi Acknowledgments, xii 1 Craniofacial development and the body axis: normal and pathological aspects from early prenatal to postnatal life, 1 Body axis pre- and postnatally, 1 Germ disk and notochord, 1 Formation of the vertebral column, 1 Cervical spine pre- and postnatally, 1 The interrelationship between the body axis and the cranium, 2 Craniofacial development pre- and postnatally, 4 Cranial base (excluding the sella turcica), 4 Sella turcica, 7 Maxilla, 8 Mandible, 12 Theca cranii, 15 Vomeral bone, 16 Nasal bones, 17 Temporal bone, 18 Craniofacial morphology and growth, 19 Highlights and clinical relevance, 19 Further reading, 19 2 Craniofacial development and the brain: normal and pathological aspects from early prenatal to postnatal life, 21 Central nervous system in relation to neurocranial development pre- and postnatally, 21 Brain, 21 Spinal cord, 24 Trigeminal ganglia, 26 Vomeronasal organs, 26 Pituitary gland and sella turcica, 28 Peripheral nervous system pre- and postnatally, 32 Jaw innervation and bone formation, 32 Highlights and clinical relevance, 34 Further reading, 35 3 Developmental fields in the cranium and alveolar process, 37 Definition of developmental field, 37 Developmental fields in the cranium, 37 The midaxial cranium, 37 The paraaxial cranium, 37 Frontonasal field, 37 Maxillary field and palatine field, 38 Mandibular field, 40 Theca field, 41 Occipital field, 41 How can craniofacial fields be proven?, 42 Frontonasal field, 42 Maxillary and palatine field, 42 Mandibular field, 43 Theca field, 43 Occipital field, 43 Developmental fields in the alveolar process, 44 The upper jaw and the dentition, 44 The lower jaw and the dentition, 44 Highlights and clinical relevance, 45 Further reading, 45 4 Tooth development and tooth maturation from early prenatal to postnatal life, 46 Histological evaluation of early tooth development, 46 Tissues involved in dental bud formation, 46 Inner enamel epithelium and hard tissue formation, 46 Outer enamel epithelium and crown follicle, 46 Root membrane and root development, 48 Sequences in prenatal tooth formation, 49 Radiographic evaluation of normal dental maturation, 49 Radiographic appearance of prenatal crowns before GA 22 weeks, 50 Radiographic appearance of postnatal dental maturation, 50 Clinical evaluation of dental maturity, 52 Bilateral agreement in tooth maturation, 52 Tooth formation from the initial stages to the eruption stages: relation to fields, gender, age, and skeletal maturity, 52 Similarities and differences in primary and permanent dental development, 53 Highlights and clinical relevance, 53 Further reading, 55 5 Periodontal membrane and peri-root sheet, 56 Periodontal membrane, 56 Peri-root sheet, 56 Definition, 56 Composition and function, 56 The peri-root sheet in the primary and permanent dentition, 56 Highlights and clinical relevance, 58 Further reading, 60 6 Normal tooth eruption and alveolar bone formation, 61 Tooth eruption mechanism and alveolar bone formation, 61 Preemergence phase, 61 Tooth eruption and jaw growth, 66 Jaw size and space, 66 Eruption sequences in the primary and permanent dentition, 68 Bilaterality, 70 Early and late eruption, 70 Highlights and clinical relevance, 71 Further reading, 72 7 Etiology-based diagnostics: methods and classification of abnormal development, 73 Why use etiology-based diagnostics?, 73 Definitions of key words, 73 Etiology, 73 Other key words, 76 Analyzing the dentition, oral cavity, and cranium: practical guide, 77 Anamnestic record, 77 Diagrams for diagnostics, 80 Highlights and clinical relevance, 80 Further reading, 80 8 Deviation in tooth morphology and color: normal and pathological variations including syndromes, 81 Primary dentition: crown, root, and pulp, 81 Malformation of incisors, canines, and molars, 81 Disruption in the primary dentition, 81 Dysplasia in the primary dentition, 87 Permanent dentition: crown, root, and pulp, 88 Malformation of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars, 88 Disruption in the permanent dentition, 98 Dysplasia in the permanent dentition, 106 Abnormal dental development: fields and bilateralism, 107 How to analyze the etiology behind deviation in tooth morphology: is it malformation, disruption or dysplasia?, 109 Highlights and clinical relevance, 109 Further reading, 110 9 Deviations in tooth number: normal and pathological variations including syndromes, 111 Agenesis: possible etiologies, 111 Agenesis of the primary and permanent dentition: hypodontia, 111 Primary dentition agenesis, 111 Permanent dentition agenesis, 112 Syndromes, disruption, dysplasia, and hypodontia, 114 Supernumerary teeth: possible etiologies, 118 Supernumerary teeth in the primary and permanent dentition: hyperdontia, 118 Primary dentition supernumeraries, 118 Permanent dentition supernumeraries, 118 Syndromes, dysplasia, and supernumerary teeth, 120 How to analyze the etiology behind deviation in tooth number, 120 Highlights and clinical relevance, 123 Further reading, 124 10 Tooth eruption and alveolar bone formation: abnormal patterns including syndromes, 125 Pathological eruption of primary teeth, 125 Abnormal times for eruption, 125 Total failure to erupt, 125 Arrested eruption of single teeth, 125 Pathological eruption of permanent teeth, 125 Abnormal times for eruption, 125 Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines, 126 Ectopic eruption of mandibular canines, 127 Transposition, 129 Ectopic eruption of molars, premolars, and other teeth, 129 Arrested eruption after trauma, 129 Arrested eruption due to lack of space, 131 Arrested eruption due to obstacles in the eruption pathway, 131 Primary retention of molars, premolars, and incisors, 132 Secondary retention of molars, premolars, and incisors, 134 Primary failure of tooth eruption, 136 Retention of teeth due to virus attack, 136 Retention due to nonshedding of primary teeth, 137 Abnormal eruption in syndromes and dysplasia, 137 Amelogenesis imperfecta, 137 Ectodermal dysplasia, 139 Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre, 139 Segmental odontomaxillary/mandibular dysplasia, 139 Eruption and heredity, 139 Eruption problems in both dentitions, 142 Localized abnormal alveolar bone formation, 143 Juvenile periodontitis: theory and heredity, 143 Hypophosphatasia and Papillon Lefevre, 143 Why analyze the etiology behind abnormal eruption?, 145 Highlights and clinical relevance, 147 Further reading, 147 11 Root and crown resorption: normal and abnormal pattern including syndromes, 149 Tooth resorption theory, 149 Ectodermal tissue, 149 Mesodermal or ectomesenchymal tissue, 150 Neuroectodermal tissue, 150 Resorption in the primary dentition, 151 Pattern of resorption, 151 Shedding times, 152 Resorption in the permanent dentition, 156 When does resorption occur in normally developed individuals?, 156 Dentitions especially susceptible to root resorption, 156 Root resorption and heredity: short roots or resorbed roots?, 158 Root resorption in syndromes, dysplasia, and disruptions, 160 Prevention of root resorption in the permanent dentition, 160 Other examples of resorption, 162 Postemergence resorption, 162 Collum resorption, 162 Aggressive resorption, 162 Preemergence resorption, 162 Crown resorption before emergence, 162 Conclusion, 163 How to analyze the etiology behind abnormal root resorption in the permanent dentition, 164 Highlights and clinical relevance, 166 Further reading, 166 12 Apparently normal nonsyndromic dentitions are phenotypically different: the interrelationship between deviations in the dentition and craniofacial profile, 168 Introduction, 168 Heredity and the dentition, 168 Agenesis and supernumerarity, 168 Morphology, 168 Eruption, 168 Resorption, 168 Dentitions with agenesis of single teeth, 168 Dentitions with multiple tooth agenesis, 170 Dentitions with macrodontic maxillary central incisors, 171 Dentitions with supernumerary teeth, 171 Dentitions with ectopic canines, 172 Buccal ectopia, 172 Palatal ectopia, 172 Dentitions with transpositions, 173 Dentitions with arrested eruption of primary molars, 174 Dentitions suitable for tooth transplantation, 174 Dentitions with arrested eruption of permanent teeth, 174 Primary retention, 174 Secondary retention, 175 Primary failure of tooth eruption, 175 Dentitions with persistence of a primary molar in adulthood, 176 Dentitions with idiopathic collum resorption, 176 Highlights and clinical relevance, 176 Further reading, 176 13 Craniofacial syndromes and malformations: prenatal and postnatal observations, 177 Holoprosencephaly/solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome, 177 Prenatal, 177 Postnatal, 177 Cerebellar hypoplasia/cri-du-chat syndrome, 180 Prenatal, 180 Postnatal, 182 Myelomeningoceles/spina bifida and hydrocephalus, 185 Prenatal, 185 Postnatal, 185 Down s syndrome (trisomy 21), 186 Prenatal, 186 Postnatal, 187 Turner s syndrome, 187 Prenatal, 187 Postnatal, 187 Fragile X syndrome, 187 Prenatal, 187 Postnatal, 188 Crouzon s syndrome, 188 Prenatal, 188 Postnatal, 189 DiGeorge s/velocardiofacial syndrome, 189 Prenatal, 189 Postnatal, 189 Cleft lip and palate, 190 Cleft lip: pre- and postnatal findings, 190 Isolated cleft palate: pre- and postnatal findings, 190 Combined cleft lip and palate: pre- and postnatal findings, 192 Cleft lip and palate etiologies, 193 Comparison between pre- and postnatal findings: results and restrictions, 194 Results, 194 Restrictions, 194 Malformations: nonsyndromic examples, 194 Highlights and clinical relevance, 199 Further reading, 200 14 Craniofacial disruptions: prenatal and postnatal observations, 202 Prenatal disruptions, 202 Amniotic band: sequence, 202 Virus infection and maternal alcohol intake, 202 Postnatal disruptions, 202 Premature birth, 202 Trauma, 202 Virus and bacterial attack, 202 Brain tumors and radiation/chemotherapy, 203 Acromegaly, 203 Highlights and clinical relevance, 204 Further reading, 206 15 Craniofacial dysplasia: prenatal and postnatal observations, 207 Endochondral and intramembranous bone dysplasia in the cranium, 207 Chondrodystrophy, 207 Osteogenesis imperfecta, 207 Osteosclerosis, 207 Hypophosphatemic rickets, 211 Dysostosis cleidocranialis, 211 Dysplasia in nonosseous tissue, 211 Ectodermal dysplasia, 211 Localized scleroderma en coup de sabre, 211 Amelogenesis imperfecta, 212 Dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia, 212 Suture dysplasia, 214 Highlights and clinical relevance, 214 Further reading, 216 16 Hard tissue as a diagnostic tool in medicine, 217 Introduction, 217 Perspectives for prenatal craniofacial pathology, 217 Perspectives for perinatal and pediatric pathology, 218 Perspectives for clinical and basic research, 219 The prenatal cranium as a predictor for postnatal development, 219 The dentition as a diagnostic tool in medicine, 220 Association between dental and craniofacial development, 220 Perspectives for anthropology, 221 Conclusion, 222 Further reading, 223 17 Clinical cases and unanswered questions, 224 Clinical cases, 224 Conditions in diagnostics, treatment planning, and outcome, 224 Optimal treatment situation, 224 Observation of the condition, 224 Nonoptimal treatment situations, 224 Examples of diagnostics and treatment of eruption problems, 225 Problems in permanent molar eruption: later diagnosed as primary retention, 225 Problems in permanent molar eruption: later diagnosed as secondary retention, 225 Problems in permanent molar eruption: later diagnosed as primary failure of eruption, 225 Problems in premolar eruption, 226 Eruption problems can be a sign of susceptibility to root resorption, 230 Eruption problems caused by supernumerary teeth, 230 Unanswered questions, 230 What is this? , 230 Can medication influence tooth formation? , 232 Further reading, 233 Index, 235

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781118912126
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 256
  • ID: 9781118912126
  • weight: 932
  • ISBN10: 1118912128

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