Mass population displacement affected millions of Europe's civilians across the different theatres of war in 1914-18. At the end of the war, a senior Red Cross official wrote 'there were refugees everywhere. It was as if the entire world had to move or was waiting to move'. Europe on the move: refugees in the era of the Great War, 1912-23 is the first attempt to understand their experiences as a whole and to establish the political, social and cultural significance and ramifications of the wartime refugee crisis. Drawing on original research by leading specialists from more than a dozen countries, it will become the definitive work on the subject and will appeal to anyone who wishes to understand how governments and public opinion responded to refugees a century ago. -- .
Peter Gatrell is Professor of Economic History at the University of Manchester Liubov Zhvanko is Professor of History and Cultural Studies at the O. M. Beketov National University of Urban Economy, Kharkiv -- .
Introduction - Peter Gatrell 1 Population displacement in East Prussia during the First World War - Ruth Leiserowitz 2 'A mass which you could form into whatever you wanted': refugees and state building in Lithuania and Courland, 1914-21 - Klaus Richter 3 Refugees from Polish territories in Russia during the First World War - Mariusz Korzeniowski 4 'Human waves': refugees in Russia, 1914-18 - Irina Belova 5 Ukrainian assistance to refugees during the First World War - Liubov Zhvanko and Oleksiy Nestulya 6 'Cities of barracks': Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War - Martina Hermann 7 Between refugees and the state: Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria-Hungary - Rebekah Klein-Pejsova 8 Beyond the borders: displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War - Marco Mondini and Francesco Frizzera 9 Belgian refugees during the First World War (France, Britain, Netherlands) - Michael Amara 10 Citizenship on the move: refugee communities and the state in France, 1914-18 - Alex Dowdall 11 Golgotha: the retreat of the Serbian army and civilians in 1915-16 - Danilo Sarenac 12 The refugee question in Bulgaria before, during and after the First World War - Nikolai Vukov 13 From imperial dreams to the refugee problem: population movements during Greece's 'decade of war', 1912-22 - Emilia Salvanou 14 Becoming and unbecoming refugees: the long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912-34 - Ugur UEmit UEngoer Index -- .