The sports of Europe and the United States were imitated and assimilated and became symbols of national and cosmopolitan identity. This work examines the national and international importance of sport and its role in shaping post-millennium global culture.
Prologue - imperialism, sport, globalization - J.A. Mangan; reconstructing the Fatherland - German Turnen in southern Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries - Leoman Tesche and Artur Blasio Rambo; educators, imitators, modernizers - the arrival and spread of modern sport in Japan - Allen Guttman and Lee Thompson; Confucianism, imperialism, nationalism - modern sport in Singapore - J.A. Mangan and Nam-Gil Ha; complex Creolization - the evolution of modern sport in Singapore - Peter A. Horton; globalization, the Games ethic and imperialism - further aspects of the diffusion of an ideal - J.A.Mangan and Colm Hickey; "linesmen, referees and arbitrators" - politics, modernization and soccer in Palestine - Amir Ben Porat; charging Amazons and fair invaders: the Dick Kerr's ladies soccer tour of North America of 1922 - sowing seed - Ali Melling; the Soviet protege - Cuba, modern sport and Communist comrades - Bob Chappell; from East to West: the way of the master - Oriental martial arts and modern European culture - Hans Bonde; the new scramble for Africa - the African football labour migration to Europe - Paul Darby; more than "Matches of the Century" for world footballing honours - Englan versus Italy, 1933, 1934 and 1939 - Peter J. Beck.