Explaining the Irish Welfare State: An Historical, Comparative, and Political Analysis

Explaining the Irish Welfare State: An Historical, Comparative, and Political Analysis

By: Mel Cousins (author)Hardback

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Description

Describes how the modern Irish welfare state, faced with the need to join the open European market, emerged through a conflict among special interests (capital, class, and gender). The author studies the case of Ireland in order to explore the policy options and possibilities in welfare states.

About Author

Dr. Mel Cousins lectures on social policy at the National University of Ireland. He has also been an advisor to the Irish Minister for Social Affairs.

Contents

List of tables i; List of figures iii; Acknowledgements v; Preface vii; I. Introduction 1; Introduction: Ireland's place in the worlds of welfare capitalism 3; Introduction 3; Criticisms of existing approaches 4; Modernisation, dependency and world-systems 4; Political independence 6; Economic dependence 6; Religion 8; Ireland in comparative studies 9; Influences on the development of the Irish welfare state 12; (1) Ireland's colonial and post-colonial status 12; (2) The importance of agriculture 12; (3) The role of Catholicism 13; (4) The place of the family 13; (5) The impact of being a dependent peripheral country 14; (6) The role of the state 15; Conclusion 15; Outline of the book 16; A note on methodology 19. 1. The development of the Irish welfare system 21; Pre-1921 - Influence of the UK 22; 1922-1932 - Free trade and retrenchment 24; 1932-1950s - Industrialisation and welfare development 26; 1950s-1960s - Stagnation 29; 1960s-1979 - Economic and welfare growth 30; 1979-1990s - Economic crisis and welfare consolidation 34; 1990s - to date - The impact of the Celtic Tiger 39; II. Welfare theories & the Irish welfare state in a comparative context 45; 2. Theories of the state and welfare state theories 47; Theories of welfare state development 48; Systems-based approaches 48; Actor-based theories 51; The social organisation of production 53; Bringing the state back in 56; Beyond the state 59; Theory and autonomy 63; 3. The impact of globalisation and the world economy 65; What is globalisation 66; The impact of globalisation 68; Studies of globalisation 70; Race to the bottom 70; Compensatory social spending 71; Globalisation as a constraint 72; Globalisation impacts in different ways in different welfare regimes 73; Policy convergence 75; Globalisation outweighed by other factors 78; Discussion 80; The Irish case 81; Ireland as a regional economy 81; Foreign trade 82; Foreign investment 84; National debt 84; Political globalisation 86; Conclusion 87; Annex 3.1: Ireland, Southern Europe and Latin America 90. 4. Explaining Ireland's welfare state 93; Phases of Ireland's political economy 97; (1) Fiscal liberalism 98; (2) National development 101; (3) Outward-looking development 104; (4) Celtic Tiger 109; State and societal structures 115; State and society 115; The impact of corporatism 118; Economic and class structures 119; Political structures 121; The role of the European Union 125; The role of the Catholic Church 126; Conclusion 127; Annex 4.1: Data sources 129; 5. Ireland's welfare state in comparative context 131; Typologies of welfare state 132; Beyond the three worlds? 136; Comparing welfare spending 138; Structure of spending 139; Levels of spending 141; Income distribution, poverty trends and welfare regimes 143; Income distribution 143; Poverty and low income 147; Discussion 151; Annex 5.1: Ireland and welfare typologies 159; Annex 5.2: Why does Ireland's spending appear low? 161; (1) Problems with the denominator 161; (2) Demographic factors 161; (3) Adjustments for the economic cycle 162; (4) Level of economic development 162; (5) Expanding the concept of social expenditure 163; III. Key Policy Areas 165; 6. Working age welfare 167; The working age population, 1926-2002 168; The development of sickness and unemployment payments 170; Introduction 170; Expansion, 1932-1952 172; The 1960s and 70s 174; Looking for work, 1970s and 80s 176; On the sick, 1970s and 80s 178; Gender equality and social welfare 179. Economic boom, 1990s 181; Benefits and 'family responsibilities' 183; Maternity 184; Lone parents 186; Carers 188; Social welfare support in a comparative context 191; Trends in numbers 192; Replacement rates and coverage 194; Determinants of spending 198; Policy issues 201; Employability and the 'death of unemployment' 201; Annex 6.1: Social welfare payments and employment 206; An active approach 208; 7. Old age pensions 215; Older people in Ireland, 1926-2002 215; The development of pensions in Ireland 217; Old age pensions 217; Widows pensions 223; Pensions in a comparative context 225; Policy issues 229; Earnings-related pension cover 230; Contribution conditions 231; The qualifying age and related labour market issues 233; The role of widow(er)s pension 235; Poverty and older people 237; Conclusion 240; 8. Child income support 241; The child population, 1926-2002 241; The development of child income support 242; Child support in a comparative context 244; Who benefits from child benefit? 246; Policy development 247; Data sources 249; Analysis 250; Discussion 254; Policy issues 255; Childcare costs 256; 'Adequacy' 257; Structure of child support 258; Age-related payments 260; Payments and family size 260; Conclusion 261. IV. Key Policy Issues 263; 9. Welfare state legitimacy, public opinion and opinion polls 265; Welfare and legitimacy 267; Legitimacy, public opinion and opinion polls 270; Legitimacy 268; Public opinion and opinion polls 270; Examining Irish opinion poll evidence 271; Supporting broad objectives 272; Cutting taxes and spending 273; Increasing taxes and spending 274; Welfare state legitimacy and restructuring 276; Welfare state restructuring 276; Public opinion 279; Opinion polls 280; Conclusion 281; Annex 9.1: Opinion polls and the welfare state 283; ESRI study, 1977 284; Council for Social Welfare, 1988 284; Foundation for Fiscal Studies, 1989 285; Eurobarometer, 1992 287; Mid 1990s 288; Eurobarometer, 2001 289; Other studies 290; Annex 9.2: Changes in welfare state structuration 291; 10. The parologisms of welfare reform 293; Introduction 293; Background to the proposals 294; Proposals in Ireland 297; Why basic income might not increase freedom and autonomy 299; Reification 299; Social control 300; Patriarchy 302; Implications of the argument 303; 11. Should the Irish welfare state be (more) privatised? 305; What is privatisation? 306; The pros and cons of privatisation 307; Improving pension cover through privatisation 309; Privatising cover for sickness and maternity payments 315; Marketising employment services 321; Conclusion 326. 12. Backwards into the future 329; Economics and demographics 333; Future options for welfare policy 336; Welfare policies 340; Conclusion 343; Bibliography 345; Index 373. LIST OF TABLES; Table 1.1: Social security transfers in comparative perspective, 1960-1974 33; Table 1.2: Social security transfers in comparative perspective, 1987-2000 38; Table 1.3: Income distribution in Ireland, 1987-2001 42; Table 1.4: Poverty and low income in Ireland, 1987-2001 43; Table 3.1: Concepts of globalisation 69; Table 3.2: Spending in EU countries, convergence and divergence, 1972-2000 77; Table 3.3: Trade openness in selected countries, 1950-2000 83; Table 3.4: Economic development in Ireland and Latin America, 1950-2000 91; Table 3.5: Trade in Ireland and Latin America, 1950-2000 91; Table 4.1: Phases in Irish political economy 99; Table 4.2: Phases in the development of the Irish welfare system 100; Table 5.1: Ireland's place in the worlds of welfare capitalism 138; Table 5.2: Income inequality, 1980s to 2001; Table 5.3: Effectiveness of welfare payments on household income poverty, 1996 150; Table 6.1: Structure and size of Irish labour force, 1926-2002 169; Table 6.2: Live register composition, 2003 206; Table 7.1: Older people in Ireland, 1926-2002 216; Table 8.1: Children in the Irish population, 1926-2002 242; Table 8.2: Expenditure on children for 2 adult households with children as per cent. of total household expenditure 251; Table 8.3: Expenditure on children as proportion of expenditure on men's clothes 251; Table 8.4: Expenditure on children's clothes as proportion of expenditure on men's clothes, 1973-1994/5 252; Table 8.5: Expenditure on children's items as proportion of spending on men's clothes, 1973-194/5 253; Table 9.1: Changes in welfare states, UK and Ireland (c. 1980-2000) 277; Table 9.2: Income inequality in Ireland and UK, 1980-2000 278. LIST OF FIGURES; Figure 1.1: Social welfare expenditure, 1923-1954 27; Figure 1.2: Social welfare expenditure, 1955-80 (per cent of GDP) 32; Figure 1.3: Social welfare expenditure, 1980-2002 (per cent of GNP) 36; Figure 5.1: Structure of EU welfare systems, mid 1990s 139; Figure 5.2: Income distribution and GDP per capita in EU countries, 1993 144; Figure 6.1: Labour force participation rates (per cent), 1926-2002 169; Figure 6.2: Numbers of working age on welfare, 1980-2002 193; Figure 6.3: Determinants of working age expenditure, 1981-2002 200; Figure 7.1: Determinants of pension spending, 1981-2002 228; Figure 8.1: Determinants of child benefit expenditure, 1981-2002 247; Figure 11.1: Models of sick pay provision 319; Figure 11.2: Models of public employment service 321; Figure 11.3: Models of pension provision 327; Figure 12.1: Structuration of Irish welfare 331.

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780773460362
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 392
  • ID: 9780773460362
  • ISBN10: 0773460365

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