Extreme Weather: Forty Years of the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO)

Extreme Weather: Forty Years of the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO)

By: Robert K. Doe (author)Hardback

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Description

This book is about weather extremes in the United Kingdom. It presents fascinating and detailed insights into tornadoes (supercell and non-supercell tornadoes, historical and contemporary case studies, frequency and spatial distributions, and unique data on extreme events); thunderstorms (epic event analysis and observing); hailstorms (intensity, distributions and frequency of high magnitude events); lightning (lightning as a hazard, impacts and injuries); ball lightning (definitions, impacts and case studies); flooding (historical and contemporary analysis, extreme rainfall and flash flooding); snowfalls (heavy snowfall days and events). It also looks at researching weather extremes, provides guidance on performing post-storm site investigations and details what is involved in severe weather forecasting. It is written by members, directors and past and present Heads of the research group the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO). With fifteen chapters thematically arranged, and data appendix including a new tornado map of the U.K., this book presents a wealth of information on meteorological extremes. This volume is aimed primarily at researchers in the field of meteorology and climatology, but will also be of interest to advanced undergraduate students taking relevant courses in this area.

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About Author

Robert K. Doe, BA Hons. (Exon), Ph.D. (Port), FRMetS, MRI Robert graduated with a Ph.D. from the University of Portsmouth, where he specialised in coastal storm climatology. Robert is a Director and Treasurer of The Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO). He is a Fellow of The Royal Meteorological Society (FRMetS) and Member of the Royal Institution (MRI). He was Editor-in-Chief of The International Journal of Meteorology (2002 2006) and has published research on meteorological phenomena including; tornadoes, waterspouts, floods, snowstorms, ball lightning, coastal storms, climate and risk. He is an Honorary Research Fellow in the School of Environmental Sciences, at the University of Liverpool.

Contents

Notes on Contributors xi Foreword xiii Preface xv About the Companion Website xvii 1 Researching Extreme Weather in the United Kingdom and Ireland: The History of the Tornado and Storm Research Organisation, 1974 2014 1 G. Terence Meaden 1.1 Introduction: The Early Years 1 1.2 International T ]Scale: Theoretical Basis 2 1.2.1 Hailstorm Research 3 1.2.2 Temperature Extremes for the British Isles 3 1.3 Tornado Research Organisation 4 1.4 The Inaugural Issue of The Journal of Meteorology 4 1.5 Storm ]Damage Site and Track Investigations 6 1.6 Birmingham Tornado of 28 July 2005 8 1.7 TORRO Conferences 8 1.8 The Future 11 Acknowledgements 13 Additional information 13 References 13 Part I Torna does 15 2 Historical tornadoes in the British Isles 17 Paul R. Brown and G. Terence Meaden 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Etymology of the Word Tornado 17 2.3 Terminology 18 2.4 Accuracy and Completeness of the Records 19 2.5 Analysis of Historical Tornadoes 20 2.6 Examples of Historical Tornado Reports 21 2.7 Concluding Remarks 30 References 30 3 Supercell and Non ]supercell Tornadoes in the United Kingdom and Ireland 31 Matt Clark and David Smart 3.1 Introduction 31 3.2 Basic Structure and Life Cycle of a Storm Cell 32 3.3 Storm Mode: An Overview of Single ]Cell, Multicell and Supercell Convection 32 3.4 Tornadoes in Supercell and Non ]supercell Storms 36 3.4.1 Synoptic Situations Associated with Tornadoes in the United Kingdom 40 3.5 Towards a Climatology of Tornadoes by Synoptic Type 43 3.6 Monthly and Annual Frequencies of Tornadoes by Synoptic Type 43 3.7 Spatial Distribution of Tornadoes by Synoptic Type 44 3.8 Morphology of Tornadic Storms 46 3.9 Association of Supercells with Giant Hail 47 3.10 Case Studies of Supercell and Non ]supercell Tornadoes 48 3.10.1 Case 1: The Cold Front of 29 November 2011 48 3.10.2 Case 2: The English Midlands Supercells of 28 June 2012 51 3.10.3 Case 3: The West Cornwall Supercell of 16 December 2012 52 3.11 Concluding Remarks 55 References 58 4 Tornadoes in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Frequency and Spatial Distribution 61 Peter Kirk, Tim Prosser, and David Smart 4.1 Introduction 61 4.2 The TORRO Database 62 4.3 Tornado Frequency for the United Kingdom and Ireland: 1981 2010 63 4.3.1 Annual Number of Tornadoes and Tornado Days 63 4.3.2 Season and Month of Occurrence 64 4.3.3 Hour of Occurrence 65 4.3.4 Intensities 65 4.3.5 Track Lengths 65 4.3.6 Maximum Track Widths 65 4.3.7 Directions of Travel 66 4.4 Spatial Distribution of Tornadoes in the United Kingdom and Ireland 66 4.4.1 Simple Mapping of the Database 66 4.5 Issues with Mapping 66 4.6 Kernel Density Mapping of Tornado Distribution 70 4.7 The London Metropolitan Anomaly 70 4.8 The Isle of Wight and South Coast Anomaly 72 4.9 Concluding Remarks 73 Acknowledgements 74 Additional Information 74 References 75 5 Tornado Extremes in the United Kingdom: The Earliest, Longest, Widest, Severest and Deadliest 77 Mike Rowe 5.1 Introduction 77 5.2 Earliest Tornado 77 5.3 Other Whirlwinds (First UK Record Only) 79 5.4 Longest Tornado Track 80 5.5 Widest Tornado Track 82 5.6 Severest Tornado 83 5.7 Largest Outbreaks 88 5.8 Highest Death Toll 89 5.9 Concluding Remarks 89 Acknowledgements 89 References 89 6 Site Investigations of Tornado Events 91 John Tyrrell 6.1 Introduction 91 6.2 Getting Started: How Site Investigations Come About 92 6.3 Site Investigation Methods 92 6.4 Site Investigation Outcomes: The Growing Understanding of UK Tornadoes 94 6.5 Site Investigation Experience 101 6.6 Concluding Remarks 102 Acknowledgements 103 References 103 Part II Thunderstorms and Lightning 105 7 Epic Thunderstorms in Britain and Ireland 107 Jonathan D.C. Webb 7.1 Introduction 107 7.2 Selected Epic Thunderstorm Events 109 7.2.1 2 3 August 1879 109 7.2.2 5 10 June 1910 110 7.2.3 7 10 July 1923 114 7.2.4 17 18 July 1926 114 7.2.5 28 29 August 1930 114 7.2.6 18 22 June 1936 116 7.2.7 The West Country Thunderstorm of 4 August 1938 119 7.2.8 5 September 1958 123 7.2.9 22 24 June 1960 125 7.2.10 8 9 August 1975 125 7.2.11 13 14 June 1977 126 7.2.12 25 26 July 1985 127 7.2.13 24 May 1989 128 7.2.14 8 9 August 1992 131 7.2.15 24 June 1994 132 7.3 Concluding Remarks 132 Acknowledgements 132 References 132 8 Thunderstorm Observing in the United Kingdom: A Personal Diary of Days with Thunder 1953 2013 135 Bob Prichard 8.1 Introduction 135 8.2 Early Observations 135 8.2.1 Thunderstorm Observing 136 8.3 Thunderstorms of the 1960s 137 8.3.1 The Days with Thunder Heard Statistic 140 8.3.2 Back to the 1960s 140 8.4 Thunderstorms of the 1970s 141 8.5 Thunderstorms of the 1980s 143 8.6 The Forecasting of Thunderstorms 145 8.7 Back to the 1980s 146 8.8 Thunderstorms of the 1990s 147 8.9 The Most Recent Thunderstorms: 2000 2013 150 8.10 Concluding Remarks 154 References 154 9 Severe Hailstorms in the United Kingdom and Ireland: A Climatological Survey with Recent and Historical Case Studies 155 Jonathan D.C. Webb and Derek M. Elsom 9.1 Introduction 155 9.1.1 Establishment of a Tornado and Storm Research Organisation Research Database of Hail Events 155 9.2 Assessing the Intensity of Hail Falls 155 9.2.1 Hailstorm Intensity Scale 155 9.2.2 Kinetic Energy 156 9.2.3 Hailstone Size and Damage 156 9.2.4 Other Factors Affecting Damage 156 9.3 Annual Frequency of Hail 157 9.3.1 All Significant, Damaging Hailstorms 157 9.3.2 Frequency of Extreme, Destructive Hailstorms 158 9.3.3 Comparisons with Continental Europe 159 9.4 Seasonal Occurrence of Hail 159 9.4.1 General Seasonal Incidence of Hail and Damaging Hailstorms 159 9.4.2 Storms of H5 Intensity or More 159 9.4.3 Comparison with the Incidence of Thunderstorms 159 9.5 Geographical Distribution 160 9.5.1 Storms of H2 Intensity or More 160 9.5.2 Geographical Distribution of Storms of H5 Intensity or More 161 9.5.3 Point Frequencies 161 9.5.4 European Comparisons 161 9.6 Hailstorm Characteristics 161 9.6.1 Hail Swathes 161 9.6.2 Radar and Hail Swathe Identification 163 9.6.3 Results of Hail Swathe Analyses 163 9.7 Synoptic Weather Types and Hailstorms 164 9.7.1 Specific Synoptic Background to Hailstorms 164 9.8 Hour ]of ]Day Distribution 167 9.9 Summary of TORRO s Overall Findings 168 9.10 Twenty of the Most Severe Hailstorms 169 9.10.1 1687: The Alvanley Storm 169 9.10.2 1697: Remarkable Late Spring Storms 169 9.10.3 1763: The Great Kent Storm of 19 August 169 9.10.4 1808: The Great Somerset Hailstorm of 15 July 169 9.10.5 1818: Stronsay, Orkney, 24 July 170 9.10.6 1843: The Great Hailstorm of 9 August 170 9.10.7 1893: Northern England and Southern Scotland on 8 July 172 9.10.8 1897: The Diamond Jubilee Storm of 24 June 174 9.10.9 1915: 4 July 175 9.10.10 1935: 22 September (Sometimes Referred to as the Great Northamptonshire Hailstorm ) 177 9.10.11 1958: The Horsham Hailstorm of 5 September 178 9.10.12 1959: 9 11 July (Including the Wokingham Storm ) 179 9.10.13 1967: The Wiltshire Hailstorm of 13 July 181 9.10.14 1968: The Dust Fall Storms of 1 2 July 181 9.10.15 1983: South Coast Hailstorms of 5 June 185 9.10.16 1983: Violent Hailstorms in North ]West England on 7 June 185 9.10.17 1985: The Essex Dunmow Hailstorm of 26 May 186 9.10.18 1996: The Storms of 7 June 187 9.10.19 1997: The Severe Storms of FA Cup Final on Saturday, 17 May 189 9.10.20 2012: The Destructive English Midlands Hailstorm of 28 June 191 9.11 Concluding Remarks 191 Acknowledgements 193 References 193 10 Lightning Impacts in the United Kingdom and Ireland 195 Derek M. Elsom and Jonathan D.C. Webb 10.1 Lightning as a Weather Hazard 195 10.2 Historical Research into Lightning 196 10.3 Research into Lightning Impacts 197 10.4 Annual Number of Lightning Incidents Causing Injuries and Deaths 198 10.5 Lightning Injuries 198 10.6 Electrical Routes by Which Lightning Causes Injuries 199 10.7 Lightning Strikes to Groups of People 200 10.8 Locations to Avoid during Thunderstorms 201 10.9 Lightning Incidents Affecting People Indoors 201 10.10 The Frequency with which Lightning Strikes a Person 202 10.11 Fewer Deaths from Lightning Over Time 203 10.12 Lightning Strikes to Animals 204 10.13 Lightning Impacts on Aircraft and Motor Vehicles 205 10.14 Increasing Awareness of the Lightning Risk 206 Acknowledgements 206 References 206 11 Ball Lightning Research in the United Kingdom 209 Mark Stenhoff and Adrian James 11.1 Introduction 209 11.2 Definitions 209 11.2.1 Lightning 209 11.2.2 Ball Lightning 210 11.3 What Ball Lightning Is Not 210 11.4 Ambiguity: Ball Lightning, Fireballs, Meteors and Meteorites 211 11.5 Early Beliefs about Lightning and Ball Lightning 212 11.6 Early Reports of Ball Lightning 213 11.6.1 Ball Lightning over Land 213 11.6.2 Ball Lightning over Rivers and the Sea 214 11.6.3 Ball Lightning Associated with Churches 215 11.6.4 Ball Lightning within Houses 216 11.6.5 Ball Lightning as a Precursor to Cloud ]to ]Ground Lightning 217 11.7 Interpreting Early Reports 217 11.7.1 1833: Early British Opinion about the Nature of Ball Lightning by Luke Howard FRS (1772 1864) 217 11.7.2 1837 1859: Surle Tonnerre and Other Works by Francois Arago (1786 1853) 217 11.7.3 1838: Comments on Ball Lightning by Michael Faraday FRS (1791 1867) 218 11.7.4 1842: On the Nature of Thunderstorms by Sir William Snow Harris FRS (1791 1867) 218 11.7.5 1854 1868: English Translations of French Works 219 11.7.6 The Late 19th Century: Ball Lightning, Spiritualism and Parapsychology 219 11.7.7 1921: The Meteorological Office Ball Lightning Enquiry 220 11.7.8 1923: Survey of Ball Lightning Reports 220 11.7.9 1870 1934: Speculations on the Nature of Ball Lightning 220 11.7.10 1936: Does Ball Lightning Exist? 220 11.7.11 1936 1937: The Tub ]of ]Water Event and the Estimated Energy Content of Ball Lightning 220 11.7.12 1937 1957: Quantum ]Mechanical and Nuclear Hypotheses for Ball Lightning 221 11.7.13 1955 1972: Plasma Hypotheses for Ball Lightning 222 11.7.14 1964: The Flight of Thunderbolts by Sir Basil Schonland FRS 222 11.7.15 1969: Eminent UK Scientists Report Ball Lightning in Aircraft 222 11.7.16 1969: The Taming of the Thunderbolts by C. Maxwell Cade and Delphine Davis 223 11.7.17 1971: Ball Lightning: An Optical Illusion? 223 11.7.18 1971: Micrometeorites of Antimatter? 223 11.7.19 1972 1995: Crew s Ionised Jet ]Stream Hypothesis for Ball Lightning (and Some UFOs) 224 11.7.20 1974: TORRO and the Journal of Meteorology 224 11.7.21 1976: A Close Encounter with a Fiery Ball Raises Questions of Ball Lightning Energy 224 11.7.22 Ball Lightning as Electromagnetic Radiation 224 11.7.23 Reviews of Ball Lightning 225 11.7.24 Ball Lightning Reported at Cambridge University 226 11.7.25 1985 1999: The TORRO Ball Lightning Division 226 11.7.26 1999: Ball lightning: An Unexplained Phenomenon in Atmospheric Physics by Mark Stenhoff 227 11.7.27 2002: Royal Society Theme Issue on Ball Lightning 227 11.7.28 2006: Publication of Ministry of Defence: Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region (2000) 227 11.7.29 2000 2014: TORRO Ball Lightning Division 228 11.8 A Selection of Ball Lightning Reports Recorded by TORRO 2000 2014 228 11.8.1 Ball Lightning inside Houses 228 11.8.2 Experienced Observer 229 11.8.3 Earthquake Ball Lightning? 229 11.8.4 A Recent Ball Lightning Event Reported to TORRO 229 11.9 2014: Ball Lightning in the UK Media 230 11.10 Concluding Remarks 230 Acknowledgments 230 References 230 Part III EXTREMES 235 12 Forecasting Severe Weather in the United Kingdom and Ireland 237 Paul Knightley 12.1 Introduction 237 12.2 Modern Forecasting 238 12.3 Severe Storm Forecasting in the United States 238 12.4 Severe Storm Forecasting Elsewhere 239 12.5 Forecasting Techniques 239 12.6 The Ingredients ]Based Approach 240 12.6.1 Moisture 240 12.6.2 Instability 240 12.6.3 Lift 240 12.6.4 Wind Shear 240 12.7 TORRO s Forecasts 241 12.8 Forecasting Severe Weather: 28 June 2012 241 12.8.1 Background 241 12.9 Concluding Remarks 245 Acknowledgements 246 References 246 13 Extreme Flooding in the United Kingdom and Ireland: The Early Years, ad 1 to ad 1300 247 Robert K. Doe 13.1 Introduction 247 13.2 Sources of Evidence 247 13.3 The Early Years 1st 10th Centuries 248 13.4 Extreme Flooding in the 11th Century 249 13.5 Extreme Flooding in the 12th Century 250 13.6 Extreme Flooding in the 13th Century 251 13.7 Concluding Remarks 259 Acknowledgements 259 References 259 14 Extreme Rainfall and Flash Floods in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Synoptic Patterns and Selected Case Studies 261 John Mason, Paul R. Brown, Jonathan D.C. Webb, and Robert K. Doe 14.1 Introduction 261 14.2 Severe Dynamic Rainfalls 261 14.3 Hybrid Rainfalls Dynamic Precipitation with Embedded Convective Cells 264 14.4 Severe Convective Rainfalls 269 14.5 Gwynedd, North Wales, UK, 3 July 2001 270 14.6 Boscastle, Cornwall, UK, 16 August 2004 272 14.7 Holmfirth, Yorkshire, UK, 29 May 1944 274 14.8 Ottery St. Mary, Devon, UK, 30 October 2008 278 14.9 Concluding Remarks 280 Acknowledgements 281 References 281 15 Heavy Snowfalls Across Great Britain 283 Richard Wild 15.1 Introduction 283 15.2 Definitions 283 15.3 Synoptic Systems and Heavy Snowfalls 283 15.4 Snowfall Climatology of Great Britain 284 15.5 Sources of Data 284 15.6 Snow Depths and Days with Snowfall 284 15.7 Spatial Methodology for Heavy Snowfall Events 285 15.7.1 LWT Catalogue 285 15.8 Heavy Snowfall Events over Great Britain 285 15.9 Heavy Snowfalls 1861 1869 286 15.9.1 20 February 1865 286 15.10 Heavy Snowfalls 1870 1879 286 15.11 Heavy Snowfalls 1880 1889 286 15.11.1 18 19 January 1881 286 15.12 Heavy Snowfalls 1890 1899 287 15.12.1 9 13 March 1891 287 15.13 Heavy Snowfalls 1900 1909 287 15.14 Heavy Snowfalls 1910 1919 287 15.14.1 11 12 January 1913 287 15.15 Heavy Snowfalls 1920 1929 288 15.15.1 25 December 1923 288 15.15.2 15 16 February 1929 288 15.16 Heavy Snowfalls 1930 1939 288 15.17 Heavy Snowfalls 1940 1949 288 15.17.1 26 30 January 1940 288 15.17.2 18 20 February 1941 288 15.17.3 26 27 March 1941 289 15.18 Heavy Snowfalls 1950 1959 289 15.18.1 8 February 1955 289 15.19 Heavy Snowfalls 1960 1969 289 15.20 Heavy Snowfalls 1970 1979 289 15.21 Heavy Snowfalls 1980 1989 289 15.22 Heavy Snowfalls 1990 1999 289 15.23 Heavy Snowfall Frequencies in Great Britain 1861 1999 289 15.23.1 Numbers of Heavy Snowfall Days 290 15.23.2 Mean Length (In Days) of Heavy Snowfall Events 291 15.24 LWTs and Heavy Snowfalls 292 15.24.1 LWT Frequency by Decade 292 15.24.2 LWT Frequency by Month and Season 293 15.24.3 LWT Frequencies Before, During and After the Heavy Snowfall Day 293 15.25 Depressions and Heavy Snowfalls 293 15.25.1 Depression Trajectories Associated with Heavy Snowfall Events 293 15.25.2 Depression Traffic Associated with Heavy Snowfall Events 293 15.26 Fronts Associated with Heavy Snowfall Days (1937 1999) 296 15.26.1 Geographical Variations in Meteorological Fronts 296 15.26.2 Relationship Between Fronts and LWT 297 15.27 Concluding Remarks 297 Acknowledgements 298 References 298 Appendices Appendix A: Data (Web Material) Appendix B: Selected Pictures from Conferences and Meetings 301 Appendix C: Tornadoes in the United Kingdom and Ireland 1054 2013 319 Appendix D: Data (Web Material) Selected Name Index 321 Subject Index 323

Product Details

  • publication date: 27/11/2015
  • ISBN13: 9781118949955
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 352
  • ID: 9781118949955
  • weight: 1264
  • ISBN10: 1118949951

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