India is in the midst of a retail boom. The sector witnessed significant transformation in the past decade - from small unorganised family-owned retail formats to organised retailing. Indian business houses and manufacturers are setting up retail formats while real estate companies and venture capitalist are investing in retail infrastructure. Many international brands have entered the market. With the growth in organised retailing, unorganised retailers are fast changing their business models. However, retailing is one of the few sectors where foreign direct investment (FDI) is not allowed at present. Stakeholders, trading associations, politicians, etc. have given various arguments for and against FDI in retailing. However, such arguments are largely based on perception and there has not been serious academic research in this area. To fill this lacuna, this survey-based study analyses the current retail scenario in India, investigates the growth across different segments of retailing and evaluates the likely impact of allowing FDI on various stakeholders in different retail segments. Experiences of other countries in allowing FDI and its impact are also discussed. Presently, foreign players are entering the market through different routes. The entry process and their perception about the Indian market are analysed. The study investigates the structural, regulatory, fiscal and other barriers affecting the performance of retail trade and suggests reforms for the removal of such barriers. It also provides valuable policy inputs in terms of the time-frame in and the process through which the Indian government can open up this sector to FDI so as to maximise the welfare and minimise the adjustment. It also lists the conditions that may be imposed on foreign retailers if FDI is allowed.
Foreword; Acknowledgement; List of Tables, Figures and Boxes; Acronyms; Executive Summary; Introduction; 1. Global Developments in Retailing; Statistical Information; Organised Retailing and Expansion of Global Retailers; FDI in Retailing and its Impact; Market Entry Strategies of Foreign Players; Barriers to International Expansion; 2. Retailing in India: Recent Trends and Developments; Introduction; Growth of Organised Retailing; Future Growth of Organised Retailing; 3. Survey Methodology; Purpose of the Survey; Design of Survey Instruments; Selection of Respondents; 4. Survey Findings: Sectoral Analysis; Introduction; Food and Grocery; Textiles and Apparel; Consumer Durables; Music and Books; Specialty Products; Fast Food Chains; Non-Store Formats; Shopping Malls; Fuel Retailing; Conclusion; 5. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and the Entry Routes; Introduction; Government Policy; Entry Routes of Foreign Players; Conclusion. 6. Perceptions, Concerns and Likely Impact; Introduction; Perception of Foreign Players about the Indian Market; Arguments by those Opposed to FDI in Retailing; Arguments by those Favouring FDI in Retailing; Conclusion; 7. Multilateral Liberalisation: Negotiating Strategies in Retailing; Introduction; GATS Framework; Analysis of Uruguay Round Commitments; Developments Since the Uruguay Round; Doha Round; Possible Negotiating Strategies; 8. Constraints and Reform Requirements; Introduction; Domestic Constraints; Reforms and Suggestions; 9. What Should be the Opening Up Strategy; Appendix: Some Sample Questions; References.