Female genital malformations represent miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy. With a prevalence of approximately 6% in the general population, they might be associated with health problems, potentially dangerous complications or poor reproductive outcome depending on the type and the degree of the anatomical abnormality. During the last two decades the better understanding of their pathogenesis, the availability of new non-invasive techniques for their diagnosis and the increased experience from their treatment have radically changed their management. A new, clinically oriented classification system has now been developed facilitating their evidence-based appraisal. It is a reality that the management of female genital malformations has changed rapidly during the last few years from an experience based and mainly descriptive field to a scientific evidence-based one. This book presents all uterine, cervical and vaginal anomalies in a systematic way and the new ESHRE/ESGE classification system utilised for their categorization. In addition, their embryogenesis and etiology are summarized. The diagnostic work-up of women with female genital malformations is reviewed in an evidence-based fashion and taking into account the availability of new non-invasive diagnostic methods. The treatment strategy and the therapeutic alternatives to restore health and reproductive problems associated with their presence are critically reviewed.
Part 1: basics.- 1. Normal embryological development of the female genital tract.- 2. Pathogenesis and aetiology of female genital malformations.- 3. Implantation in women with uterine congenital malformations.- 4. Classification of female genital malformations.-Part 2: Screening and diagnosis of female genital malformations.- 5. Hysterosalpingography.- 6. 2D Ultrasound and sonohysterography for the diagnosis of Female Genital Anomalies.- 7. 3D Ultrasound.- 8. Magnetic resonance imaging for the Diagnosis of Female Genital Anomalies.- 9. Diagnosis of Uterine Congenital Anomalies: Endoscopy.- 10. Current Work-Up for Screening And Diagnosing Female Genital Malformations.- Part 3: Clinical implications of the female genital malformations.- 11. Prevalence in the general and selected populations.- 12. Health problems related to female genital malformations: obstructive and complex anomalies.- 13. Fertility in women with uterine anomalies.- 14. Pregnancy outcome in women with uterine anomalies.- 15. Cervical Weakness in women who have uterine anomalies: Impact on pregnancy outcomes.- Part 4: Treatment of vaginal aplasia / techniques and results.- 16. Frank dilators.- 17. Vulvo-Perineoplasty Creatsas Vaginoplasty.- 18. Neovagina formation with expansion of vaginal vault.- 19. Neovagina formation with the use of peritoneum.- 20. Neovagina formation with the use of bowel.- 21. Vaginal Aplasia: Critical Overview of Available Treatment Options.- Part 5: Treatment of obstructive anomalies.- 22. Vaginal septae and imperforate hymen.- 23. Treatment of Obstructing Anomalies: Cervical aplasia.- 24. Treatment of Patients with Non-communicating Horns with Cavity.- Part 6: Treatment of uterine malformations.- 25. T-shaped uterus.- 26. Septum resection: Techniques and Post-Treatment Reproductive Performance.- 27. Bicorporeal uterus: treatment options.- 28. Bicorporeal Uterus: Laparoscopic Metroplasty.- Part 7: Disorders of sex development.- 29. Disorders of Sex Development: Classification and Treatment.