Finnish: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Comprehensive Grammars)

Finnish: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Comprehensive Grammars)

By: Fred Karlsson (author)Paperback

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Description

Finnish: A Comprehensive Grammar presents a fresh, accessible and thorough description of the language, concentrating on the real patterns of use in modern Finnish. The book moves from the sound system through morphology and word classes to a detailed analysis of sentence structures and semantic features. Key features include: particular focus on examples from spoken Finnish reflecting current usage grammatical phenomena classified as common or rare appendices identifying stems and sequences of endings English-Finnish contrasts highlighted throughout. Finnish: A Comprehensive Grammar is an essential reference for the intermediate and advanced learner and user of Finnish.

About Author

Fred Karlsson is Adjunct Professor of Finnish at the Universiity of Helsinki, Finland.

Contents

Contents Preface Notational conventions and abbreviations Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 The relation of Finnish to other languages 1.2 Finnish and Finland, past and present 1.3 The basic characteristics of Finnish 1.4 What are the special difficulties? Chapter 2 Pronunciation and sound structure 2.1 Letters and sounds 2.2 Vowels and consonants 2.3 Short and long sounds 2.4 Diphthongs 2.5 Syllables 2.6 Rhythm, word stress patterns and intonation patterns 2.6.1 Rhythm 2.6.2 Word stress patterns 2.6.3 Intonation patterns and accentuation 2.7 Vowel harmony 2.8 Major dialectal differences in pronunciation Chapter 3 Word structure 3.1 Nominals and their inflectional endings 3.2 Finite verb forms and their endings 3.3 Non-finite verb forms and their endings Chapter 4 Two important sound alternations 4.1 Consonant gradation of p, t, k 4.1.1 The types of consonant gradation 4.1.2 The rules of consonant gradation 4.1.3 Applying the basic rule to nominals 4.1.4 Applying the rules to verbs 4.1.5 Additional comments 4.1.6 The most common words with consonant gradation 4.2 Vowel changes before i endings Chapter 5 The declension of nominals 5.1 Nominals inflected on the basic form 5.1.1 Tunti nominals with short final -i 5.1.2 Talo nominals with short final -u, -o, -y, -oe 5.1.3 Kala nominals with short final -a 5.1.4 Isa nominals with short final -a 5.1.5 Nominals with final diphthong or long vowel 5.2 Nominals with short final -i or -e and separate inflectional stem 5.2.1 Kivi nominals, inflectional stem in -e, partitive -A 5.2.2 Kieli nominals, inflectional stem in -e, partitive -tA 5.2.3 Vesi nominals, inflectional stem in -te, partitive -tA 5.2.4 Perhe nominals with short final -e 5.3 Nominals with a final consonant and separate inflectional stem 5.3.1 Ihminen nominals 5.3.2 Ajat> us nouns 5.3.3 Taivas nominal 5.3.4 Hyv> yys nominals 5.3.5 Ava> in nominals 5.3.6 Tyoe> toen nominals 5.3.7 Askel nominals 5.3.8 Lyhyt nominals 5.3.9 Adaptation of new borrowed nouns 5.4 Singular and plural Chapter 6 The conjugation of verbs 6.1 Infinitive endings 6.2 Inflectional stems 6.2.1 Anta-a verbs 6.2.2 Saa-da verbs 6.2.3 Tul-la and nous-ta verbs 6.2.4 Huomat-a verbs 6.2.5 Tarvit-a verbs 6.2.6 Lamm> et-a verbs 6.3 Personal endings and agreement of person Chapter 7 Interplay between Finnish morphology and syntax 7.1 Parts of speech 7.2 Phrases 7.3 Syntactic functions of phrases in clauses 7.4 Cases and adpositional phrases are markers of syntactic functions 7.5 Syntactic functions, phrases and clauses elaborated Chapter 8 8.1 Phrase types 8.2 The noun phrase 8.2.1 Structure 8.2.2 Agreement within the noun phrase 8.2.3 Functions of the noun phrase 8.2.4 Complexity of the noun phrase 8.3 The adjective phrase 8.4 The numeral phrase 8.5 Adpositional phrases 8.6 The adverb phrase 8.7 The infinitive phrase 8.8 The participle phrase Chapter 9 Simple clauses 9.1 Clause types 9.2 Clauses with basic order subject + verb 9.3 Clauses with basic order verb + subject 9.4 Free adverbials, questions, negation, word order variations 9.5 Clauses without subject 9.6 Negative clauses 9.7 Questions and answers 9.7.1 Questions with -kO (`yes-no' questions) 9.7.2 Question-word questions (`wh-' questions) 9.8 Minimal examples of simple clause types Chapter 10 Complex sentences 10.1 Types of complex sentences 10.2 Complex sentences with subordinate clauses 10.3 Complex sentences with infinitive and participle phrases 10.4 Nominalization 10.5 Repeated embedding of subordinate clauses, non-finite phrases and nominalizations 10.6 Structure of the predicate Chapter 11 The nominative case 11.1 Nominative singular and plural 11.2 Use of the nominative 11.2.1 The nominative marking subjects, objects and predicate complements 11.2.2 Special uses of the nominative Chapter 12 The partitive case 12.1 Formation of the partitive 12.1.1 Partitive singular 12.1.2 Partitive plural 12.2 Use of the partitive 12.2.1 Partitive subject 12.2.2 Partitive object 12.2.3 Partitive predicate complement 12.2.4 The partitive in expressions of quantity 12.2.5 The partitive with adpositions 12.2.6 Special uses of the partitive Chapter 13 The genitive case and total objects 13.1 Formation of the genitive 13.1.1 Genitive singular 13.1.2 Genitive plural 13.2 Use of the genitive 13.3 The total object 13.3.1 Total object and partitive object 13.3.2 Total object endings 13.4 Quantity adverbials taking object cases Chapter 14 Possessive endings 14.1 Possessive endings in nouns 14.2 Possessive endings in other parts of speech 14.3 Ways of expressing ownership (possession) Chapter 15 The six local cases 15.1 Inessive 15.2 Elative 15.3 Illative 15.4 Adessive 15.5 Ablative 15.6 Allative 15.7 Directional verbs 15.8 Place names Chapter 16 Other cases 16.1 Essive 16.2 Translative 16.3 Abessive 16.4 Comitative 16.5 Instructive Chapter 17 Numbers and numerals 17.1 Cardinal numbers 17.1.1 Inflection of cardinal numbers 17.1.2 Use of cardinal numbers 17.2 Ordinal numbers 17.3 Fractions Chapter 18 Pronouns 18.1 Personal pronouns 18.2 Demonstrative pronouns 18.3 Interrogative pronouns 18.4 Indefinite pronouns 18.5 Relative pronouns Chapter 19 Tenses 19.1 Present tense 19.2 Past tense 19.3 Perfect tense 19.4 Pluperfect tense 19.5 Negative forms 19.6 Expressing future time Chapter 20 Moods and modality 20.1 Indicative 20.2 Conditional 20.3 Imperative 20.4 Potential 20.5 Other means for expressing modality Chapter 21 Passive constructions 21.1 General 21.2 Passive present 21.3 Passive past 21.4 Passive perfect and pluperfect 21.5 Passive moods Chapter 22 Infinitive-based constructions 22.1 General 22.2 A infinitive 22.2.1 Basic form of the A infinitive 22.2.2 A infinitive translative 22.3 E infinitive 22.3.1 E infinitive inessive 22.3.2 E infinitive instructive 22.4 MA infinitive 22.4.1 Formation 22.4.2 MA infinitive inessive 22.4.3 MA infinitive elative 22.4.4 MA infinitive illative 22.4.5 MA infinitive adessive, abessive and instructive 22.5 MINEN infinitive Chapter 23 Participle-based constructions 23.1 General 23.2 VA participle active 23.3 VA participle passive 23.4 The NUT/TTU participles 23.5 The participial construction 23.6 The temporal construction 23.7 The agent construction 23.8 Verb unions with participles or infinitives Chapter 24 Comparison of adjectives 24.1 Comparative 24.2 Superlative Chapter 25 Other word classes and clitics 25.1 Adverbs 25.2 Prepositions 25.3 Postpositions 25.4 Conjunctions 25.5 Discourse particles 25.6 Clitics Chapter 26 Word formation 26.1 General 26.2 Derivation 26.2.1 Deriving nominals from nominals 26.2.2 Deriving nominals from verbs 26.2.3 Deriving verbs from verbs 26.2.4 Deriving verbs from nominals 26.2.5 Rare derivational endings 26.2.6 Multiple derivation 26.3 Compounding Chapter 27 The colloquial spoken language 27.1 General 27.2 Omission and assimilation of sounds 27.3 Differences of form Appendix 1 Detecting word structure Appendix 2 Definitions of key concepts Appendix 3 Material for studying Finnish as a foreign language

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781138821040
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 500
  • ID: 9781138821040
  • weight: 726
  • ISBN10: 1138821047

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